This central square of the Johor State administration complex harmonises Islamic and Malaysian culture and heritage with the natural surroundings. It is a shallow, sunken area defined by mounds to the north giving views over the square and a ‘heritage wall’ to the south. This wall carries granite slabs engraved with the historical journey of Johor. A 2000 seat amphitheatre in front of the mounds surveys the ceremonial ground, which is laid out in geometric patterns in accordance with formal Islamic design. A central water plaza and extensive planting serve to create ‘an earthly paradise’.