The city walls of Saladin were built under the supervision of Baha' al-Din Qaraqaush (1176-1200). The Citadel of Saladin (northern enclosure), known as Qal'at al-Jabal, and the spiral well (outside the northern enclosure), a masterpiece of medieval engineering, were also built under the supervision of Qaraqush (1176-82).
The Bab al-Mudarraj, built in 1183-4, is one of the two original gates of the Citadel. The greatest tower in these ramparts is Burj al-Zafar, probably built between 1176 and 1192. The Burj al-Ramla and Burj al-Haddad belong to a group of towers built along the ramparts of the northern enclosure of the Citadel in 1207 under the reign of al-'Adil and during the viceroyship of al-Kamil. These stone fortifications provide an excellent example of Muslim military architecture from the age of the Crusades.