The fortifications of Fez date to the eleventh century period of Almoravid rule (1056-1147). During the Almoravid reign the two separate cities of the Qayrawani and the Andalusi, which faced each other across the Oued Fez river, were united by a single fortification. Under the Almohads (r. 1130-1269), these ramparts were destroyed and then rebuilt. This fortification was completed by the Marinid dynasty (r. 1196-1549) following the founding of the new administrative center, Fez al-Jadid (New Fez) in 1276.
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Pickens et al. 1995. Maroc: Les Cites Imperiales. Paris: ACR Edition.
Sijelmassi, Mohamed. 1991. Fes: Cite de l'Art et du Savoir. Paris: ACR Edition.