Tripoli, the capital of Libya, lies on the North African coast surrounded by agricultural plains. Tripoli's natural harbor and a permanent oasis have drawn people to the area for three millennia.
Oea, as Tripoli was known in Phoenician times, was one of the three cities, along with Sabratha and Leptis Magna, of the Roman provincia Tripolitania. The decline of Sabratha and Leptis Magna left Oea the principal city on the coast, but it continued to be referred to as Tripolis.
Tripoli was a Christian city from at least 256 CE until a Vandal siege in the mid-fifth century. The rule of the city changed hands between the Vandals and the Byzantines until Amr ibn Al-As and his Arab armies conquered Tripoli in 642. The Knights of St. John took the city in the 14th century. The Spanish conquered it in the 16th century, after which the Ottomans captured Tripoli and governed until the 20th century.
The old city (medina) is surrounded by massive Ottoman fortification walls, and its plan still reflects Roman origins with a cardo extending from the arch of Marcus Aurelius to the Bab al-Hurria (Liberty Gate). A decumanus runs from an arch along Shar'a Hara al-Kabira, another along streets Shar'a al-Harrara and Shar'a Humt Garian. Cardo and decumanus exemplify the two principal divisions in a Roman town plan. The city is dominated by the castle, al-Saraya al-Hamra, which today houses the Jamahiriya Museum. The oldest surviving mosque in Tripoli is the mosque of al-Naqah (1610), but other significant monuments include the Ahmed Pasha al-Qarahmanli Complex, the Uthman Pasha Madrasa, and a number of other mosques. Along Tripoli's narrow, arcaded streets are courtyard houses from the Ottoman period and funduqs, two-story market workshops with sleeping quarters for merchants.
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Sixteen domes soar above the 18 m. square sanctuary of the Quirgi mosque. Every surface is decorated in paint, carved plaster, or ornate ceramic tile. The mihrab, minbar, and some windows are made of marble inlaid with semi-precious stones. This mosque and its rich decoration is the legacy of Mustafa Quirgi, chief of the customs service. The complex also includes a small school and the mausoleum of M. Quirgi.
In the sanctuary the domes along the central axis are raised higher than the rest to accentuate the main axis. The mosque has a gallery on the second floor, where again every surface is colored in polychrome ceramic tile. The gallery surrounds the sanctuary on all sides except the qibla wall.
The Quirgi mosque has a striking octagonal minaret that rises from the north corner of the complex. It too is richly decorated with tile, and has two balconies supported by elegantly carved brackets. At each balcony the minaret becomes more slender.
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