Set at the foot of the Alborz mountains, Tehran, once an agricultural enclave characterized by forests and abundant mountain water, developed at the site of a citadel since medieval times. Tehran was first walled during the Safavid era, in the mid-sixteenth century. With the decline of other regional centers, Tehran replaced Shiraz as the capital of the Zand dynasty in the mid-eighteenth century, before being proclaimed the capital of the succeeding Qajar dynasty in 1795. Tehran flourished under Qajar patronage, and the city gained the addition of various gardens and complexes, perhaps the most notable being the Kakh-i Gulistan, or Gulistan Palace.
By the early twentieth century, these walls were subsumed by the continually expanding city, as the population growth reached half a million. From 1870-2/1287-9 AH, Nasir al-Din undertook the city's modernization, extending the city walls, adding decorative towers and twelve new, tiled gates. Inspired by the urban development of Paris under Napoleon III, which al-Din had witnessed personally on a visit abroad in 1873, the new walls were designed with the work of Sebastien Leprestre de Vauban in mind, and the area north of the original city transformed to the likeness of the Boulevard Haussman. New avenues and squares were constructed, among them; Meydan-e Tupkhane (Cannon Square) , Avenue Lalezar (Tulipbed Street), and Ala Od Dwale Under al-Din's direction the city quadrupled in size, and many of the gardens surrounding the city were used for further construction. The Kakh-i Gulistan was rebuilt, and became the centerpiece of the city, with the addition of turreted towers, supervised by Dust 'Ali Khan Nizam al Dawla. Polychrome tiles replaced the painted ornamentation in much of the complex, as did carved stucco and decorative mirror-work. In addition to the Kakh-i Gulistan, summer palaces were constructed in the Shimiranat villages in the city's northern suburbs.
Tehran yet again underwent expansion and modernization efforts in the mid-twentieth century, as the prosperity that accompanied the exploitation of oil from the 1950s accelerated the growth of the city. In 1979, Tehran became a hub for revolutionary activities, aimed at concluding the reign of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. The city has continued to be a site of development, with over half of Iran's total industry being based in Tehran, and the construction of many research and educational centers.
Bagh Sangi Jamshidieh, which in Persian means "Jamshidieh's stone garden", is a small, twelve-hectare public park on one of the Southern slopes of the Alborz Mountains to the North of Tehran. It was transformed from an old, private fruit orchard that contained a residence at its narrowing Southern end, and was donated as a gift to the Imperial Family. Today, the park is extensively used by the residents of Tehran for picnics and recreation. To transform the old orchard into a park, stone walls were used to retain the rough earth terraces, paths were paved and, along them, sitting areas were designed; pools and cascades containing runoff water from the mountains were built, and various theme areas were conceived and fitted with stone or metal sculptures. At present, the park also contains a restaurant with a fine view overlooking Tehran, an exhibition hall for contemporary works of art, and a small administration building.
Bagh Sangi Jamshidieh was created from an old, dilapidated, private orchard, with the intention of providing a public park for the residents of Tehran and featuring the characteristics of traditional Persian gardens. It was also expected to respond to the needs of contemporary visitors familiar with modern amenities. Accordingly, the park was to provide a contemporary restaurant, an open-air theatre for concerts and other performances, a children's library and recreation area (later transformed into an exhibition hall for contemporary art), an administrative centre with living areas for gardeners and caretakers, controlled access with a gate house, public toilets, and benches to rest upon as well as various gathering spots with pergolas and seating for picnicking. Dark-green coloured local stone from the mountains was used for paving, for the fountain basins and retaining walls, and for the water channels and waterfalls. A softer, light-coloured stone was used for the sculptures, although some are also crafted in steel.