From its origins as an outpost of the Achaemenid Empire, the repeated strengthening of the Citadel of Qala Ikhtyaruddin, and the setting out of a walled settlement by the Ghaznavids, the city of Herat has had a turbulent history. Situated at the crossroads of regional trade, in the midst of rich irrigated agriculture, the area has been a prize for successive invaders. The city became a centre for Islamic culture and learning during the reign of Timur, whose successors commissioned several monumental buildings, but it then fell into decline under the Mughals. Considered part of Persia during the Safavid era in the eighteenth century, it was not until 1863 that Herat was incorporated into the emerging Afghan state.
The distinctive rectilinear layout of the city of Herat was delineated by massive earth walls that protected the bazaars and residential quarters that lay within. This was the extent of the city until the middle of the twentieth century, when administrative buildings were constructed outside of the walls to the northeast.
Aga Khan Trust for Culture. Graphic Panels Describing the Work and Programmes of the Aga Khan Trust for Culture. Geneva: 2010.
An exhibition on all the activities of the Aga Khan Trust for Culture available in digital format. The exhibition, in English and Arabic, comprises 23 panels which describes in words and images, the work of the Historic Cities Programme, Aga Khan Award for Architecture and Aga Khan Music Initiative.