Located on the Sabarmati River, Ahmadabad was founded in 1411/814 AH by the Muslim Sultan Ahmad Shah, the ruler of Gujarat. Newly proclaimed, the ruler felt vulnerable in the capital of Anahilvada-Patan, and moved his court to Ashaval, a Hindu settlement that supported him, and which he renamed Ahmadabad, after himself.
The new capital of Gujarat developed rapidly with the palace as the nucleus, encircled by a commercial districts. The Bhadra Fort represents the footprint of the original city. The nobility settled outside the city limit, forming their individual settlements. These settlements, known as puras, were named after their respective founders with the suffix of 'ganj' attached, like Nurganj or Muradganj.
Ahmadabad became a part of the Mughal Empire in 1572/980 AH under Emperor Akbar. In 1817/1232 AH, the British took over and the East India Company made it the military and administrative center of Gujarat. No longer the capital of Gujarat in post-Independence India, Ahmadabad is still a principal city with a thriving cotton industry earning it the title of 'Textile City'. Architecturally, the city boasts some of the most interesting examples of fifteenth century Gujarati style. The Jami Masjid and the Mausoleum of Ahmad Shah are an adaptation of indigenous Hindu and Jain architecture; the Siddi Saiyad's Mosque is famous for its exquisite yellow stone latticework, the Rani Sipri's mosque is an elegant dedication to Sultan Mahmud Begara's Hindu wife.
Modern Ahmadabad is spreading west of the Sabarmati River. This portion of the city plays host to the work of two famous architects, Le Corbusier and Louis Kahn. Sanskar Kendra, Mill Owners' Association building and the private residences of Sarabhai and Shodhan were designed by Le Corbusier, while the Indian Institute of Management (IIM) by Louis Kahn is one of the top college for business studies.
Davies, Philip. The Penguin Guide to the Monuments of India - Volume 2: Islamic, Rajput, European. London: The Penguin Group, 1989.
R.N. Mehta and Rasesh Jamindar. "Urban Context." In Ahmadabad, edited by George Michell and Snehal Shah, 1. Bombay: Marg Publications, 1998.
DK Eyewitness Travel Guides: India London: Dorling Kindersley Limited, 2002.
Haybat Khan's Masjid is among the oldest mosques in Ahmedabad. It is situated on the southern end of the old walled city near the Jamalpur Gate, possibly on the site of a Hindu Temple from which building materials were re-used.1 It's namesake is Haybat Khan, a member of the family of the Sultans of Gujarat. The mosque lacks inscriptions but can be dated to the second decade of the fifteenth/ninth century AH and the foundation period of Islamic Ahmedabad.
The mosque is a rectangular building with three large arched entrances on its east side and five monumental buttresses on its western (qibla) wall. The interior of the mosque is a large prayer hall. Domes resting on twelve pillars aligned with the three entrances cover square bays that divide the space. The central bay is elevated higher than the two side bays. Two aisles occupy the space between the domed bays, and between the bays and the qibla, front, and side walls is one aisle. Decorative vaults cover the bays of these aisles. Windows made of carved stone screens (jali) allow light through the qibla wall and side walls.
A canopy style tomb is situated on the grounds to the northeast of the mosque.
The diversity of carving styles on the pillars used to support the mosque's vaults demonstrates that pillars were harvested from a number of local buildings.
Burgess, James. The Muhammadan Architecture of Ahmadabad. Part I - A.D. 1412 to 1520, 20-21. Archaeological Survey of Western India, Vol. 7. London: William Griggs & Sons, 1900.
Haibat Khan Masjid (Alternate transliteration)
Haybat Khan Mosque (Translated)
Haibat Khan Mosque (Translated)
second decade of 15th c./second decade of 9th c. AH