ʻAbd al-Malik ibn Marwān, Caliph, 642-705 (Translated)
'Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan was the fifth caliph of the Umayyad dynasty of Syria, Islam's first hereditary dynasty. He ruled from 685-705/65-86 AH. 'Abd al-Malik is known as an effective ruler who among other achievements, continued the process of centralizing the administration of the early Muslim Empire and reinforcing its Arab and Muslim identity. It was under his leadership that the official language of the diwan (government bureaus) changed from Greek and Pahlavi to Arabic, and that a new form of coinage with verses from the Qur'an was minted, replacing the image of the ruler that had appeared on Sasanian and Byzantine coins. 'Abd al-Malik was also the patron of monumental architecture, and the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem was completed during his reign.
Gibb, H. A.R. "'Abd al-Malik b. Marwān." Encyclopedia of Islam, Second Edition. Edited by P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, and W.P. Heinrichs.