The city of Baghdad is the economic, cultural and political capital
of the modern nation-state of Iraq. Situated on the banks of the Tigris
River, it lies at the northwest end of the alluvial plain that is home
to 75% of Iraq's population. As such, its location is in the heart of
Ancient Mesopotamia, where the some of the first recorded instances of
irrigation and a sedentary agriculture fomented the Sumerian
civilization. The political community of Baghdad, however, dates back to
the mid-eighth century CE.
Abbasid Period (749-1258/131-655 AH)
the capital of the Abbasid caliphate, Baghdad wielded the greatest
political power in the Islamic world from the middle of the eighth
century until the middle of the tenth. The revolution that brought the
dynasty to power coincides with most accounts of the city's founding in
762, though pre-Islamic texts - including the Talmud - mention a
significant, if modest, market town at this location. The second Abbasid
caliph Mansur succeeded his brother Saffah (reg. 750-754/132-136 AH) in
754, and by 762, Mansur had commissioned the construction of a capital
for the new regime, moving political control from Kufa to his new,
defensible city. Baghdad remained the Abbasid capital from 762 until
1258 CE. The perfect circle that delimited the city was made of a thick
rampart surrounded by a moat and an outer wall. Arab historians of the
day remarked that the Round City's
layout was unique, but it was not without precedent. Scholars agree the
circular morphology reflected the Sasanian influences on Baghdad's
original urban design. The circular plan of the city is reminiscent of
Firouzabad in Fars.
Mansur's choice of Baghdad
as his capital reflected his desire to maintain political and cultural
connections with the eastern as well as western hinterlands of his
empire. At each quadrant of the circle stood an impressive gate leading
to Khurasan, Basra, Kufa and Syria. The Tigris would facilitate trade
from the north, the south and the sea. Furthermore, the extant
Mesopotamian canal system was developed; the waters of the Euphrates
irrigated the remarkably fertile soils west of Baghdad.
speculate that during the reign of Harun al-Rashid (842-847/227-232 AH)
Baghdad was the largest city in the world, with a possible population
of between 700,000 and 1,000,000 inhabitants - a cosmopolitan mix of
migrants that included Arabs, Persians, Jews and Indians, among others.
During this period, this center of civilization witnessed huge
scientific, theological and cultural advances, such as al-Khawarismi's
invention of algebra and the poetry of Abu Nuwas. But Harun's reign is
most famous for the ways it was mythologized centuries later in 1001 Nights.
Harun's death, early signs of the eventual disintegration of the
Abbasid dynasty were beginning to appear, and a new capital city was
created at Samarra in the 850s. Shortly thereafter, Baghdad was
reinstated as the capital. Abbasid Baghdad remained an important center
of Islamic cultural life until the mid-thirteenth century. But by 945,
the growing tension between provincial governors and Turkish generals
led to a power vacuum that was filled by the Buwayhids, who sold the
empire to local warlords piece by piece. Baghdad's influence waned.
Significant Abbasid architecture in Baghdad includes the Abbasid Palace in the Q'ala, minarets of the Qumriyya and Khatafin Mosques and Bab el-Wastani (Wastani Gate).
the Seljuk General Tughrul Beg marched into Baghdad in 1055, he
declared himself the ruler of the Muslim world. For forty years, Baghdad
experienced a renaissance under the Seljuks, with the establishment of
the prestigious Nidhamiya school and a revival of Persian culture, but
the Seljuks' power was sapped by the First Crusade in 1095. The Abbasid
Caliphs and the Seljuk Sultans vied for power throughout the next
century, and the Abbasid Caliph al-Nasr finally freed Baghdad of Seljuk
Turk influence by 1186. The Abbasid restoration did foster specific
cultural milestones, such as the construction of the extant Mustansiriya Madrasa in
1233 (an important Sunni theological college that was incorporated into
Baghdad University in 1962), but the Caliphs' contributions to Sunni
posterity exceeded their political and military acumen.
Post-Abbasid period (1258-1535/655-941 AH)
Mongols sacked Baghdad in 1258, executing the remaining Abbasid family
members. The Mongols destroyed the city and most of its architectural,
religious and literary monuments, including the original Sumerian
irrigation system that had initiated the region's prosperity. Hulagu
Khan, great-grandson of Genghis Khan and commander of the invading army,
appointed a fellow Mongol as administrator, who then rebuilt mosques
and brought a measure of stability to the war-torn city. The Suq al-Ghasl minaret (ca. 1279/677 AH) was added in Il-Khanid times to the Abbasid-era Khulafa mosque.
series of bloody dynastic and sectarian convulsions were to define the
next few centuries, which witnessed the short-lived reigns of the
Jalayrid, Qara-Qoyunlu, Aq-Qoyunlu and Safavid dynasties. Baghdad was
destroyed more than once in this period, notably by Timur (Tamerlane) in
1401, and the city's Sunnis were massacred by Safavid fanatics in 1501.
This genocide attracted the fury of Sulaiman the Magnificent in
Istanbul, who rode to Baghdad and successfully established Iraq as
Ottoman Rule (1535 - 1917/941-1335 AH)
the next four hundred years - with the exception of a sixteen year
insurrection by Safavid Persians starting in 1622 - Iraq would remain an
Ottoman province of limited international significance, named the
"Principality of Baghdad". Between 1869 and 1872, Ottoman governor
Midhat Pasha applied Tanzimat reforms to Baghdad. He instituted legal
reform, imported a printing press, started a newspaper, and built
schools and hospitals. He divided the province into three governorates:
Mosul, Baghdad and Basra (which included Kuwait). The Tanzimat reforms
had significant town planning implications: for the first time in its
history, wide, straight thoroughfares could be cut into the existing
urban fabric. Significant Ottoman architecture in Baghdad includes the Jaylani Complex (1534/940 AH) and Ahmadiya Mosque (1795/120 AH).
1908, the revolution of the Young Turks spawned Arab nationalism in
Iraq. While the Young Turks' ideology sought the imposition of a Turkish
identity on all Ottoman subjects, the collateral effect in Iraq was the
birth of pan-Arabism.
Birth of the Mandate & Modern Iraq (1917-2005/1335-1425 AH)
the early 20th Century, the British, who had established a trade post
in Basra as early as the 17th Century, controlled both the southern
route to India (via the Red Sea) and the northern one (via Afghanistan).
The middle road, through Baghdad, was much shorter. The British invaded
Iraq from the south during WWI, battling German and Ottoman forces on
the push north to Baghdad in order to gain control of Iraqi oil and
trade routes. The British installed the King of Iraq in Baghdad in 1921.
Baghdad was named the official capital of the new nation-state. Even
when Iraq was admitted to the League of Nations in 1932, with the
British Mandate formally over, British influence remained until the
overthrow of the monarchy in 1958.
d'etat of July 14th, 1958, sought to assert an Iraqi identity rather
than an ethnic or sectarian one: Baghdad's new government was ruled by a
three-man sovereignty council comprised of a Shia, a Sunni and a Kurd.
Freedom of the press, equal rights for the Kurdish community, and
women's suffrage were enshrined in law.
the 1950s, a growing population was exerting pressure on the existing
urban fabric of Baghdad, and the governments of the day conceded that
modern planning interventions seemed the best way to respond. At the end
of World War I, Baghdad's population was reduced to 200,000. By 1965,
this figure reached 1.62 million. In 1955, Doxiadis Associates of Greece
(responsible for the planning of Islamabad in 1965 and Riyadh in 1972)
were commissioned to produce a comprehensive modern plan for the city,
which resulted in the razing of many squatter settlements and the
creation of large peripheral housing projects.
1963, a coalition of Arab nationalist parties seized power, and the
Ba'ath Party rose to supremacy through yet another coup in 1968. Saddam
Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti was appointed deputy of the new Ba'ath
leadership. Under the Ba'athists, the Doxiadis plan for Baghdad was
replaced with a plan from the Polish firm of Polservice, who advocated
high-rise housing as a solution to Baghdad's housing crisis. Throughout
the 70s, the price of oil buoyed unprecedented building construction in
Baghdad, during which time local architects could collaborate with
international consultants such as John Warren and the Architect's
Collaborative. Notable examples of architectural modernism in Baghdad
include Le Corbusier's Saddam Hussein National Gymnasium and Realisation Scolaire Architectes' National Film Centre (both 1981/1401 AH).
Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988) slowed progress, though large,
state-sponsored building projects continued in Baghdad and across the
country. Significant architectural projects in Baghdad since this war
have been dominated by vast monuments to the Iraqi war dead and
elaborate renovations to Hussein's palaces. In 1990, the US-led Gulf War
that aimed to liberate Kuwait from an Iraqi invasion did not advance to
Baghdad, but basic infrastructure in the city was systematically
disabled. The sanctions imposed on Iraq thereafter further crippled
Baghdad, virtually eliminating the middle class in the process. On the
20th of March, 2003, a new US-led effort to topple Hussein's government
did not shy from attacking Baghdad directly. Baghdad fell within twenty
days. The Coalition Provisional Authority, which governed the country
until May 2004, maintained the well-defended military 'Green Zone' as
the core of administrative activity. Outside of the central zone, which
is centered on Hussein's palaces, violence remains a daily reality for
Baghdadis. The city's monuments and objects of archaeological or art
historical significance are under threat. The looting of Iraq's
Archeological Museum was highly publicized after the fall of Saddam
Hussein's regime. But Iraq's National Library and Archives suffered even
more devastating losses. As of April 2007, best estimates for Baghdad's
current population are 5.1 million, which is just under a fifth of
Iraq's total population of 26.7 million.
Bertram, Carel. "The Architecture of Power: Palaces and Palatial Spaces in Islam." Syllabus, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, [dated not provided.]
This document is a syllabus reflecting course content developed for "The Architecture of Power: Palaces and Palatial Spaces in Islam," by Dr. Carel Bertram, from the Center for Middle Eastern Studies at the University of Texas at Austin.
This seminar explores the architectural spaces, motifs and practices that are associated with rulers, or the expression of power in Islam. We will begin with the desert palaces of the Umayyads, and include the great palaces of Andalucia. and then discuss the courts of Baghdad and Samarra, the tent palaces of the Timurids, the royal palace city of the Fatimids and the built wonders of the Safavids, Ottomans and Mughals.
Grabar 1973 First chapters
Elias 2000 The Genetics of Modern Assyrians and Their Relationship to Other People of the Middle East
Foucault 1984 Space, Knowledge and Power
Preziosi 1991 Introduction: Power, Structure, and Architectural Function
Pre-Islam and The First Islamic Dynasty, the Umayyads [661-750]
Winter 1993 "Seat of Kingship"/"A Wonder to Behold" The Palace as Construct in the Ancient Near East
Grabar 1973 "Islamic Secular Art: Palace and City"'
Grabar 1993 "Umayyad Palaces Reconsidered"
Ettinghausen and Grabar 1987 from Chapter 2: The Umayyads and their Art, especially the part on Secular Buildings.
Hamilton 1959 Khirbat al Mafjar; an Arabian mansion in the Jordan Valley. With a contribution by Oleg Grabar
Bloom 1993 The Qubbat al-Khadra and the Iconography of Height in Early Islamic Architecture
La dolce vita in early Islamic Syria: the evidence of later Umayyad palaces / by Robert Hillenbrand. Art history 1982 Mar., v.5, n.1, p.-35.
"City in the desert : Qasr al-Hayr East :" an account of the excavations carried out at Qasr al-Hayr East on behalf of the Kelsey Museum of Archaeology at the University of Michigan, Cambridge, Mass. : Distributed for the Center for Middle Eastern Studies of Harvard University by Harvard University Press, c1978. Series title: Harvard Middle Eastern monographs 23-24
Qusayr' Amra, residencia y banos omeyas en el desierto de Jordania / por Martin Almagro ... [et al.]. Madrid : Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores, Direccion General de Relaciones Culturales, 1975.
Reconstructing an Islamic palace in Syria / by Kassem Toueir. Archaeology 1982 July-Aug., v.35, no.4, p.30-37. photos., maps, biblio.
Solomon's throne, Solomon's bath: model or metaphor / Priscilla P. Soucek Ars orientalis 1993, v.23, p.-134. On Solomonic imagery in the baths of the Ummayad palace at Khirbat al Mafjar.
The Early Abbasids: Baghdad and Samarra [750-1250, but mainly 750-850 ]
Bacharach 1991 pp111-122 or 24
Soucek 1997 Byzantium and the Islamic East
Hunt, Lucy-Anne. : Comnenian aristocratic palace decorations: descriptions and Islamic connections. : Oxford, B.A.R., 1984. 15 illustrations; plans, elevations. IN: Angold, Michael., ed, Byzantine aristocracy, IX to XIII centuries 138-156. SERIES: BAR international series, 221.: Examines literary descriptions of 12th-13th c. Byzantine palaces and analyzes Islamic influence on their mosaics, paintings and other decoration.
Lassner 1970 The topography of Baghdad in the early Middle Ages; text and studies
The Qubbat Al-Khadra and the iconography of height in early Islamic architecture / Jonathan M. Bloom. Ars orientalis 1993, v.23, p.-141.
'Amid, Tahir Muzaffar. The 'Abbasid architecture of Samarra in the reign of both al-Mu'tasim and al-Muawakkil. Baghdad, al-Ma'aref Press, 1973.
Iraq. Mudiriyat al-Athar al-Qadimah al-'Ammah. Remains of the Abbasid Palace in the Baghdad Citadel. Baghdad, Printed at Govt. Press, 1935.
For the way that Baghdad has been imaged and imagined in literature, see The 1001 Nights, texts, translations, introductions, and illustrations.
The Madinat al Zahra of the Spanish Umayyads (912-961) and Fatimid Cairo (909-1171)
Ruggles 1993 Arabic Poetry and Architectural Memory in al-Andalus
Sanders 1989 and excerpts from (Sanders 1989)
Thackston 1986 (1045) travels to Cairo of Nasr-i Khosrow
(Bierman 1998) Writing signs : the Fatimid public text /
(Sanders 1994) Ritual, politics, and the city in Fatimid Cairo
Johns, Jeremy.: The Norman kings of Sicily and the Fatimid Caliphate. 8 ill., 3 plans. IN: Proceedings of the XV Battle Conference and of the XI Colloquio medievale of the Officina di studi medievali, 1992. -- Woodbridge, Boydell, 1993, p. 133-159. Johns distinguishes between those components of the Arabic facet of the Norman monarchy which were inherited from the Muslim rulers of Sicily, and those which were imported from the contemporary Muslim world after ca.1130. This is demonstrated by considering the architecture and decoration of the Norman palaces in and around Palermo, ceremonial and regalia, the structure and practices of the Norman fiscal administration, and the Arabic titles of the Norman kings.Submits that the Fatimid court of Egypt was the source for these imports, and that the Norman kings took as their model the external symbols of royal power of the caliphate while remaining ignorant of their intrinsic significance.
Citadels and Seljuqs
Bacharach 1991 124 to the end
Tabbaa 1993 Circles of Power: Palace, Citadel, and City in Ayyubid Aleppo
Redford 1993 Thirteenth-Century Rum Seljuq Palaces and Palace Imagery
Redford 2000 It considers not only some gardens that Redford found and documented around Alanya, but also tries to situate Seljuk garden and hunting culture in a larger Islamic and Mediterranean context.
Koprulu 2000 (1916) This yet unpublished article includes descriptions of court ceremonial practices and the throne room, among other things, based on Ibn Bibi/Yazicioglu
Mason, Roger. The Medici-Lazara map of Alanya.: Anatolian studies 1989, v. 39, p. 85-105, ISSN 0066-1546. Roger publishes a previously unknown early 17th c. map of Alanya (archive of the conti de Lazara, Padua), connected with the attacks made on Anatolia by the Order of S. Stephen, 1585- 1639. Concludes that the map is an accurate fine-copy or presentation copy, ca.1606-13, from the so-called cartografia stefaniana based on a carefully observed military sketch map, and that it allows reliable conclusions to be drawn concerning the early 17th c. fortifications of Alanya.
The Mamluks and the Citadel in Cairo 1310-25 and 1333-41
Chapter 1, "Whence the Citadel," pp 1-17 introduction to the Citadel, some overlap with earlier readings
Chapter 6, pp182-228 "The Citadel in al-Nasir Muhammad's Reign: First Construction Period (1310-1325]
Chapter 7, pp 229-295, "The Citadel in al-Nasir Muhammad's Reign: Second Construction Period (1333-1341]
Rabbat, 1993 Mamluk Throne Halls: Qubba or Iwan?
The Alhambra at its peak, 1354
Dodds, 1979 The paintings in the Sala de justicia of the Alhambra: iconography and iconology
Macdougall and Ettinghausen 1976 which has a chapter by James Dickie, "The Islamic garden in Spain." pp 89-105
SUMMARY: Proposes a reconstruction of the Hispano-Arab garden on the basis of evidence from contemporary texts collated with data yielded by excavation. Texts cited embrace a period spanning the 10th to the 14th cs. Although the design remained essentially unaltered (as to plan, soil levels, irrigation system) some evidence of development is present. Surviving botanical lists disclose the contents of the gardens. Symbolism governs certain aspects of garden design as well as the choice of plants; and both together deepen our understanding of the Islamic aesthetic. Discussion covers the Alcazaba of Malaga, various gardens at the Alhambra and Generalife in Granada, and excavations in the Alcazar of Seville
Grabar 1992 The Alhambra
Bargebuhr 1968 The Alhambra: a cycle of studies on the eleventh century in Moorish Spain
Alhambra revisited / Maria Cristina Tonelli Michail, Guido Almansi, Jorge Luis Borges. FMR 1985 Mar., no.9, p.93-124. photos.
Poetry in water: the magnificent Granada gardens of the Generalife and the Alhambra / Robin Lane Fox. House & Garden 1987 Jan., v.159, no.1, p.104-114,162. photos.
Methods of constructing geometric ornamental systems in the cupola of the Alhambra / Sergei Chmelnizkij. Muqarnas 1990, v.6, p.-49.
The palace of the lions, Alhambra, and the role of water in its conception / Nasser Rabbat. Environmental design: journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre 1985, no.2, p.64-73. ill., refs.
The Ilkhanid Mongols 1258-1336 and the Timurids in Iran [1370-1501], and their Asian Roots
Steinhardt 1990. "From Bianliang to Dadu"
Conti 1977 The Forbidden City, People's Republic of China
Blair 1993 The Ilkhanid Palace
O'Kane 1993 From Tents to Pavilions: Royal Mobility and Persian Palace Design
Golombek and Wilber 1988 Timurid Society
Golombek 1995 The gardens of Timur: new perspectives
Grabar and Blair: 1980, Epic Images for some discussion of life at court in the context of an illustrated Ilkhanid manuscript
The Ottomans and Topkapi Palace, 1457 through the Classical Period (16th c) and Beyond
Chapter One, pp 3-30, "Construction of the New Palace and Codification of its Ceremonial"
Chapter Three, pp 53-75, "The Second Court: State Ceremonial and Service Buildings"
Chapter Four, pp 76-90 "The Second Court: Administrative Buildings"
Zilfi 1993 A medrese for the palace: Ottoman dynastic legitimation in the eighteenth century
The Safavids and the Iranian Court 1570-1722
Conti 1977 "Persepolis, Iran"
Blake 1999 "Land, People, Empire," pp 3-11 and "Imperial Palace and Imperial Garden Retreats." pp 55-84
Kleiss 1993 "Safavid Palaces"
Babaie 1994 Shah'Abbas II, the conquest of Qandahar, the Chihil Sutun, and its wall paintings
Wilber, Donald Newton. Persian gardens & garden pavilions. Rutland, Vt., C. E. Tuttle Co. 
India, The Moguls and their Gardens 1526-1857
Crane 1987 The patronage of Zahir al-Din Babur and the origins of Mughal architecture
Moynahan 1988 The Lotus Garden Palace of Zahir al-Din Muhammad Babur
James L. Wescoat 1990 Gardens of invention and exile: the precarious context of Mughal garden design during the reign of Humayun (1530-1556)
Koch 1997 Mughal palace gardens from Babur to Shah Jahan (1526-1648)
Koch 1994 Diwan-i Amm and Chihil Sutun: the audience halls of Shah Jahan
Andrews 1987 The generous heart or the mass of clouds: the court tents of Shah Jahan
Fatehpur Sikri: origins and growth of a Mughal city / Satish Davar. Architectural Association (Great Britain) AAQ. Architectural Association quarterly 1978 v.10 n.3 p.-59. illus., plans.
A Little-known Mughal garden in India: Aam Khas Bagh, Sirhind / Subhash Parihar. Oriental art 1985-1986 Winter, new ser., v.31, no.4, p.421-432. photos., plans, refs.
Sub-imperial palaces: power and authority in Mughal India / Catherine B. Asher. Ars orientalis 1993, v.23, p.-302. ill., photos., plans.
The Mughal garden: gateway to paradise / James Dickie. Muqarnas 1985, v.3, p.-137. photos., ill., refs.
Michell, George. The royal palaces of India, London : Thames and Hudson, c1994.
The grammar of paradise: on the generation of Mughul gardens / by G. Stiny and W. J. Mitchell. Environment and planning B 1980, v.7, n.2, p.209-226. diagrs., refs.
Michell, George. Architecture and art of the Deccan sultanates New York : Cambridge University Press, 1999. Series title: New Cambridge history of India I, 7.
Michell, George. Firuzabad : palace city of the Deccan / London ; New York : Published by Oxford University Press for the Board of the Faculty of Oriental Studies, University of Oxford, c1992. Series: Oxford studies in Islamic art ; 8
Necipoglu 1991 Chapter Eleven "Conclusions: The Topkapi and Other Palatine Traditions" pp 242-25
Hellier, Chris. Splendors of Istanbul : houses and palaces along the Bosporus New York : Abbeville Press, c1993.
Revault, Jacques. Palais et maisons du Caire du XIVe au XVIIIe siecle [Le Caire : Institut francais d'archeologie orientale du Caire], 1975 Memoires publies par les membres de l'Institut francais d'archeologie orientale du Caire ;
Quigley, Kathleen. Bedouin dreams and Arabian nights: creating the illusion of a tribal tent for a desert palace in Riyadh. Architectural Digest v55, n1 (Jan, 1998):122 (4 pages). Interior designer Charles Larry Horne created a tent for a leading economist in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The structure, which was located under his client's palace, adopted the concept of a traditional bedouin tent set up in an oasis.
Friend, David.The house of Fahd: the first glimpse inside the private world of the Saudi king. (includes related article on Al-Yamamah Palace) Life v11, n4 (April, 1988):90 (7 pages)
Necipoglu 1993 Framing the gaze in Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal palaces. (Topkapi Palace, Istanbul; Safavid Palace, Isfahan; The Red Fort, Delhi
Andrews, P. A. ( 1987). “The generous heart or the mass of clouds: the court tents of Shah Jahan.” Muqarnas 4: -165.
Babaie, S. (1994). “Shah'Abbas II, the conquest of Qandahar, the Chihil Sutun, and its wall paintings.” Muqarnas 11: -142.
Bacharach, J. (1991). Administrative Complexes, Palaces, and Citadels, Changes in the Loci of Medieval Muslim Rule. The Ottoman city and its parts : urban structure and social order. R. A. A.-E. -. H. Irene A. Bierman, Donald Preziosi. New Rochelle, N.Y, A.D. Caratzas,: 111-28.
Bargebuhr, F. P., 1904- (1968). The Alhambra: a cycle of studies on the eleventh century in Moorish Spain. Berlin.
Bierman, I. A. (1998). Writing Signs: The Fatimid Public Text. Berkeley, U. California Press.
Blair, S. (1993). “The Ilkhanid Palace.” Ars Orientalis 23 ('93): 239-248.
Blake, S. P. (1999). Half the world : the social architecture of Safavid Isfahan, 1590-1722. Costa Mesa, Calif., Mazda Pub.
Bloom, J. (1993). “The Qubbat al-Khadra and the Iconography of Height in Early Islamic Architecture.” Ars Orientalis 23 ('93): 135-141.
Bloom, J. and S. Blair (1997). Islamic Arts. London, Phaidon, ISBN 0 7148 3176X.
Brothers, C. (1994). “The Renaissance Reception of the Alhambra: The Letters of Andrea Navagero and the Palace of Charles V.” Muqarnas 11: 78-102.
Cantor, P. A. (1997). “Tales of the Alhambra: Rushdie's use of Spanish history in 'The Moor's Last Sigh.'.” Studies in the Novel 29(3 (Fall, 1997)): 323 (19 pages).
Conti, F. (1977). Homes of Kings ISBN 0-15-003724-4. Boston, HBJ Press.
Crane, H. (1987). “The patronage of Zahir al-Din Babur and the origins of Mughal architecture.” Bulletin of the Asia Institute 1, new ser: 95-110.
Dodds, J. D. (1979). “The paintings in the Sala de justicia of the Alhambra: iconography and iconology.” Art Bulletin, New York, N.Y 61(2 June 1979)): 186-197, 16fig.
Elias, J. J. (2000). “The Genetics of Modern Assyrians and Their Relationship to Other People of the Middle East.” Nineveh P.O. Box 2620, Berkeley, CA 94720 23(1&2): 2-6.
Ettinghausen, R. and O. Grabar (1987). The Art and Architecture of Islam, 650-1250. New Haven, Yale U Press.
Foucault, M. (1984). Space, Knowledge and Power. The Foucault Reader. P. Rabinow. Harmondsworth, Penguin.
Golombek, L. (1995). “The gardens of Timur: new perspectives.” Muqarnas 12: -147.
Golombek, L. and D. Wilber (1988). The Timurid architecture of Iran and Turan. Princeton, Princeton University Press.
Grabar, O. (1973). The formation of Islamic art. New Haven.
Grabar, O. (1992). The Alhambra, 2d ed., rev. Sebastopol, Calif., Solipsist Press.
Grabar, O. (1993). “Umayyad Palaces Reconsidered.” Ars Orientalis 23 ('93): 93-108.
Grabar, O. and S. Blair: (1980). Epic Images and Contemporary History, The Illustrations of the Great Mongol Shahnama. Chicago, University of Chicago Press.
Hamilton, R. W. (1959). Khirbat al Mafjar; an Arabian mansion in the Jordan Valley. With acontribution by Oleg Grabar. Oxford, Clarendon Press.
Irving, W., 1783-1859 (1859). The Alhambra. New York, G.P. Putnam.
James L. Wescoat, J. (1990). “Gardens of invention and exile: the precarious context of Mughal garden design during the reign of Humayun (1530-1556).” Journal of garden history 10 , Apr.-June(no.2): 106-116.
Kleiss, W. (1993). “Safavid Palaces.” Ars Orientalis 23 ('93): 269-280.
Koch, E. (1994). “ Diwan-i Amm and Chihil Sutun: the audience halls of Shah Jahan.” Muqarnas 11: .-165.
Koch, E. (1997). “Mughal palace gardens from Babur to Shah Jahan (1526-1648).” Muqarnas 14: -165.
Koprulu, M. F. (2000 (1916)). Turkish Civilization in Anatolia in theSeljuk Period translated by Gary Leiser, Mesogeios.
Lassner, J. (1970). The topography of Baghdad in the early Middle Ages; text and studies. Detroi.
Macdougall, E. B. and R. Ettinghausen, Eds. (1976). The Islamic Garden. Dumbarton Oaks Colloquium on the History of Landscape Architecture IV. Washington, D.C., Dumbarton Oaks.
Moynahan, E. B. (1988). “The Lotus Garden Palace of Zahir al-Din Muhammad Babur ISBN 90 04 08647 1.” Muqarnas 5: 135-152.
Necipoglu, G. (1991). Architecture, Ceremonial, and Power, The Topkapi Palace in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries ISBN 0-262-14050-0. Cambridge, MA, MIT Press.
Necipoglu, G. (1993). “Framing the gaze in Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal palaces. (Topkapi Palace, Istanbul; Safavid Palace, Isfahan; The Red Fort, Delhi).” Ars Orientalis 23 ('93): 303-42.
Northedge, A. (1993). “An Interpretation of the Palace of the Caliph at Samarra (Dar al-Khalifa or Jawsaq al Khaqani).” Ars Orientalis 23 ('93): 143-170.
O'Kane, B. (1993). “From Tents to Pavilions: Royal Mobility and Persian Palace Design.” Ars Orientalis 23 ('93): 249-268.
Preziosi, D. (1991). Introduction: Power, Structure, and Architectural Function. The Ottoman City and Its Parts : Urban Structure and Social Order, (Subsidia Balcanica, Islamica Et Turcica, 3). I. A. Bierman, R. A. Abou-El-Haj and D. Preziosi. New York, Aristide D. Caratzas.
Rabbat, N. (1993). “Mamluk Throne Halls: Qubba or Iwan?” Ars Orientalis 23 ('93): 201-218.
Rabbat, N. O. (1995). The Citadel of Cairo : a new interpretation of Royal Mamluk architecture. Leiden, E.J. Brill.
Redford, S. (1993). “Thirteenth-Century Rum Seljuq Palaces and Palace Imagery.” Ars Orientalis 23 ('93): 220-236.
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Zilfi, M. C. (1993). “A medrese for the palace: Ottoman dynastic legitimation in the eighteenth century.” Journal of the American Oriental Society 113 (n2 (April-June, 1993):184).This seminar explores the architectural spaces, motifs and practices that are associated with rulers, or the expression of power in Islam. We will begin with the desert palaces of the Umayyads, and include the great palaces of Andalucia. and then discuss the courts of Baghdad and Samarra, the tent palaces of the Timurids, the royal palace city of the Fatimids and the built wonders of the Safavids, Ottomans and Mughals. Students will be encouraged to investigate the ways in which systems of royal identity are made visual, or visualized in text, and how these operate within and relate to specific cultural settings as well as to contemporary ideas of an Islamic system of power.