Nur al-Din Muhammad Salim Jahangir Padishah (Translated)
Jahangir, Emperor of Hindustan (Translated)
Jihangir (Alternate transliteration)
Jehangir (Alternate transliteration)
نور الدين محمد سليم (Alternate)
Nur al-Din (Transliterated)
Nur-ud-Din (Alternate transliteration)
Nuruddin (Alternate transliteration)
سلطان سليم ساه (Formerly known as)
Sultan Salim Shah (Transliterated)
Salim Shah (Transliterated)
Jahangir was the fourth Mughal Emperor of India. The imperial name Jahangir means "World Seizer," and was chosen at the time of his accession to the throne in 1605/1014 AH. His given name was Muhammad Salim and he also took the honorific name (laqab) Nur al-Din, meaning "Light of the Faith."
Jahangir's most significant contributions fell in the patronage of culture. He wrote his own memoir, known as the Tuzuk-i Jahangiri, which includes valuable observations of the people and places he knew. During the period of his rule, art also flourished. Because Jahangir actively commissioned portraits of people as well as studies of the flora and fauna of the northern Indian subcontinent, a rich legacy of painting and drawing has come down to us.
In the political arena Jahangir gradually lost control to his most powerful wife, Nur Jahan, who became a de facto ruler. Not only was she able to influence matters from behind the scenes, but coins were struck in her name and she is even said to have issued firmans. Jahangir's memoir includes several anecdotes pointing to her political ambition and her prowess in regal pastimes like hunting.
Court intrigue was not absent from Jahangir's reign. He had strained relationships with his sons Khusraw and Khurram, both of whom rebelled openly against their father at various points due to fighting over succession to the throne. Khurram would ultimately succeed to the throne as Shah Jahan upon Jahangir's death.
The Tūzuk-I-Jahāngīrī, or Memoirs of Jahāngīr. Translated by Alexander Rogers and edited by Henry Beveridge. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, 2003.
Lahore is the site of the first Mughal conquests in India. Situated between the Mughal centers and the strongholds of Kabul, Multan, and Kashmir, the city had great strategic importance for the empire. It became the most important Mughal city after Agra, until Shahjahanabad eclipsed them both. Akbar rebuilt an earlier fort on the site, enlarging and strengthening it by replacing the original clay walls with solid brick masonry. Lahore fortress is contemporary to Agra Fort, and is based on the same formal organization, although it is smaller (roughly 365X304 m or 1200X1000 feet), and distinguished by strong Persian stylistic influences, as well as the Hindu influences also apparent at the Agra and Delhi forts. Akbar's successors Jahangir, Shah Jahan, and other Mughal, and later Sikh, rulers would make revisions, replacing many of the original buildings, but the scheme seems to have been preserved.
The high outer walls are decorated with blue kashi tiles of Persian origin. The fort has two distinct sections: the 'private', palatial section, and the administrative section, including areas for royal audiences. The residential section is arranged in courts along the northern half of the fort, and is accessed by the Hathi Pol, or 'elephant gate'. The northeastern section, which includes red sandstone buildings, is the oldest part of the residences, and was built in Akbari times. The Bari Khwabgah, or 'large bedroom', is attributed to Jahangir, and the Choti Khwabgah, in white marble, is a later addition by Shah Jahan. The Mussaman Burj, Naulakha Pavilion, and the Shish Mahal, known as the 'hall of mirrors', also by Shah Jahan, are examples of the ornate architecture in fine white marble work he brought to the Fort.
The more public, administrative section is organized in a layer that conceals the private one. It is accessed from the Alamgiri Gate, built by Awrangzib (1658-1707), which leads into the large courtyard of the Diwan-i-Amm, or hall of public audience. The Fort also contains gardens and a mosque, the white marble Moti Mosque by Shah Jahan.
Asher, Catherine. 1992. The New Cambridge History of India: Architecture of Mughal India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 224-6.
Tillotson, G.H.R.. 1990. Mughal India. San Francisco: Chronicle Books. pp. 131-37.
Koch, Ebba. 1991. Mughal Architecture. Munich: Prestel. pp. 60-61, 84-85.