Nur al-Din Muhammad Salim Jahangir Padishah (Translated)
Jahangir, Emperor of Hindustan (Translated)
Jihangir (Alternate transliteration)
Jehangir (Alternate transliteration)
نور الدين محمد سليم (Alternate)
Nur al-Din (Transliterated)
Nur-ud-Din (Alternate transliteration)
Nuruddin (Alternate transliteration)
سلطان سليم ساه (Formerly known as)
Sultan Salim Shah (Transliterated)
Salim Shah (Transliterated)
Jahangir was the fourth Mughal Emperor of India. The imperial name Jahangir means "World Seizer," and was chosen at the time of his accession to the throne in 1605/1014 AH. His given name was Muhammad Salim and he also took the honorific name (laqab) Nur al-Din, meaning "Light of the Faith."
Jahangir's most significant contributions fell in the patronage of culture. He wrote his own memoir, known as the Tuzuk-i Jahangiri, which includes valuable observations of the people and places he knew. During the period of his rule, art also flourished. Because Jahangir actively commissioned portraits of people as well as studies of the flora and fauna of the northern Indian subcontinent, a rich legacy of painting and drawing has come down to us.
In the political arena Jahangir gradually lost control to his most powerful wife, Nur Jahan, who became a de facto ruler. Not only was she able to influence matters from behind the scenes, but coins were struck in her name and she is even said to have issued firmans. Jahangir's memoir includes several anecdotes pointing to her political ambition and her prowess in regal pastimes like hunting.
Court intrigue was not absent from Jahangir's reign. He had strained relationships with his sons Khusraw and Khurram, both of whom rebelled openly against their father at various points due to fighting over succession to the throne. Khurram would ultimately succeed to the throne as Shah Jahan upon Jahangir's death.
The Tūzuk-I-Jahāngīrī, or Memoirs of Jahāngīr. Translated by Alexander Rogers and edited by Henry Beveridge. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, 2003.
The Diwan-i-Amm, or 'hall of public audiences' is attached to Jahangir's palace in Lahore Fort. It includes an expansive court (730'X460') and a trabeate hall on its northern side. It is this hall that separates the row of private palace buildings from the more public functions of the Fort. The innermost row of rooms was built by Jahangir. Cloth canopies were set up in front of these rooms to shelter the courtiers, until a pillared hall, known as the Chehil Sutun, or forty-pillared audience hall, was added by Shah Jahan. Some later alterations were made under Sikh rule.
The façade of the Diwan is distinguished by the red sandstone brackets supporting the wide slanting chajja, or projecting eaves. The pillars are decorated with chevron designs on their shafts, and stalactite designs on their capitals, similar to their counterparts in the Diwan-i-Am of Agra, after which this one is modeled. The outer walls are arcaded, open to the court and to the outdoor gardens, and the back wall contains a balcony-throne from which the emperor granted audiences.
Tillotson, G.H.R.. 1990. Mughal India. San Francisco: Chronicle Books. p. 134.
Koch, Ebba. 1991. Mughal Architecture. Munich: Prestel. p. 109.
Asher, Catherine. 1992. The New Cambridge History of India: Architecture of Mughal India. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. pp. 172, 179, 194.