Nepal is prone to various types of natural disasters due to her rugged and fragile geophysical structure, very high peaks, high angle of slopes, complex geology, variable climatic conditions, active tectonic processes, unplanned settlement, increasing population, weak economic condition and low literacy rate. Apart from the above reasons, the lack of coordination among agencies related to disaster management, no clear-cut job description of those agencies, resource constraint, the lack of technical manpower, the lack of public awareness, very remote, rural and difficult geo-physical situation of the country, absence of modern technology and so on are other factors are the other major obstacles to cope with the natural disasters in Nepal.
In view of the above situation, formulation of a Natural Disaster Management Regulation and amendment in the existing Act is needed to clarify the job and responsibilities of the agencies related to disaster management. Well trained technical manpower, advanced technology and sufficient means and resources are also needed to reduce the natural disasters. Moreover, disaster management course has to be included in the school and university curriculum and various types of programs are to be launched in order to raise the public awareness. For an effective early warning system, it is needed to develop a scientific detection system to monitor changes in the physical environment. The system of hazard mapping, vulnerability assessment and risk analysis has to be developed as all these sectors are still undeveloped in Nepal. For all this, there is the necessity of strong political determination and effective policy formulation and their implementation.
Despite the above problems and limitations, Nepal is gradually picking up the momentum towards improving the disaster management situation. Policy makers have shown interest to look into the problems of disaster management from the point of view of economic development which is gaining strength in the country. Such interest of the policy makers might prove to be conducive to use existing scientific and technical knowledge to reduce vulnerability to natural disasters and environmental hazards. Being a developing country, Nepal needs assistance and support from international communities and friendly nations to strengthen her capabilities for natural disaster prevention and reduction, making early warning system as the key element.
At present, various agencies of His Majesty's Government of Nepal like : the Ministry of Home Affairs, the Ministry of Water Resources, the Ministry of Housing and Physical Planning, the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Defense, the Ministry of External Affairs, the Ministry of Public Works and Transport, the Ministry of Information and Communication, the Ministry of Forest and Environment, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Science and Technology, the Ministry of Women and Social Welfare, the Ministry of Supplies, the Secretariat of National Planning Commission, the Royal Nepal Army, Nepal Police, Nepal Red Cross Society, Nepal Scout, the Department of Mining and Geology, the Department of Meteorology, the Department of Forest and Soil Conservation etc. are involved in disaster prevention and mitigation works in close cooperation with various international agencies such as : Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), Asian Disaster Reduction Center (ADRC), Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC), United Nations Development Program(UNDP), International Center for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), International Red Cross Society (IRCS), United States Agency for International Development Mission to Nepal (USAIDMN), United Mission to Nepal (UMN), Cooperation for American Relief Everywhere (CARE), OXFAM, Redd Barna, World Food Program (WFP), Save the Children Fund (SCF), Technical Cooperation of the Federal Republic of Germany (GTZ), Lutheran World Service (LWS) etc.. Besides, various other professional and non-governmental organizations like Nepal Red Cross Society(NRCS), Nepal Scout (NS) are providing highly valuable support at the time of natural disasters. Some other professional and non-governmental organizations of Nepal like Water Induced Disaster Prevention Technical Center (DPTC), Nepal Geological Society (NGS), National Society for Earthquake Technology (NSET) and few others have contributed significantly by conducting research and training programmes to raise public awareness in the country.