Kiris, Irem Maro. "Re-Exploring Late Ottoman Buildings In Today’s Istanbul." ArchNet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, vol. 7, issue 2 (2013): 318-329.
The late-Ottoman early-Republican period had delineated a unique, heterogeneous stage in the course of Istanbul’s transformation into a modern city. Istanbul at the turn of the 19th century, exhibited a setting under influence of political, ideological, historical, cultural and social factors. The active, long settlement history, imperial heritage, urban texture, cosmopolitan social structure, metropolitan growth, westernization, nationalism, demands of contemporary city life, the modern integrating with the existent local were among them. In this study, architecture of the late-Ottoman Istanbul will be explored through selected buildings that reflected the architectural/urban development of their time, held significance in terms of function, form/style, technology and urban features, represented leading architects’ work, specific trends, and marked strategic locations. Consecutive part of the study will cover a re-exploration of these buildings in their current condition, after a century has passed since they were constructed. Such a comparison, besides providing a record of urban transformation in Istanbul, discloses different faces of the encounter with globalization, and points to contemporary local and global architectural problems of the metropolis in general.