Raftani, Kamal, and Radoine, Hassan. "The Architecture of the Hammams of Fez, Morocco," in ArchNet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, vol. 2, issue 3 (2008).
Morocco is one of the countries with the highest record of traditional living hammams. Despite this fact, this key civic building remains poorly studied by researchers and professionals. This paper presents a research into Moroccan hammams and shed some light on the formation and evolution of the traditional urban space. It focuses on the hammams of the world heritage city of Fez – also referred to as Medina of Fez – and presents an analysis of the architecture of this building type and its relationship with its urban environment. It investigates the historic context of the hammam, its origin and the different influences that have contributed in shaping its architectural identity. It also assesses its current state and discusses its elements of sustainability.