Haddad, Naif, Jalboosh, Fatima, Fakhoury, Leen, and Ghrayib, Romel. "Urban and Royal Umayyad House Architecture in Jordan: a comprehensive typological analysis at al-Hallabat." International Journal of Architectural Research: ArchNet-IJAR [Online] 10, no. 2 (29 July 2016): 87-112. http://www.archnet-ijar.net/index.php/IJAR/article/view/835.
The Umayyad period represents one of the most prosperous periods in the history of Jordan. Most of the studies, however, have long been focused on palatial and luxurious architecture. In Jordan, few examples of Umayyad houses have survived in their entirety. However, the new discoveries at al-Hallabat rural houses allow an architectural enrichment of our knowledge for that period, even from a socio-economic point of view. In contrast with the better-known desert palaces that dominate the evidence for this period, they also assist in establishing the houses’ typological patterns. This paper attempts to present and discuss the main Umayyad urban and rural house architecture in Jordan, while addressing al-Hallabat Umayyad houses based on recent unpublished reports and preliminary results of excavations. It aims to present a comparative typological pattern analysis of al-Hallabat houses excavated at two phases (1979-1982, 2002-2006) with parallel examples from Bilad al-Sham. The paper defines three typological patterns; nucleus, courtyard, and complex houses. All have at least one courtyard. The study shows that there were continuity and parallelism in Bilad al-Sham between these types and those used at least in early Byzantine and early Islamic period, such as these at ar-Risha and Khirbet al-Askar in Jordan.