"The squareness of the music's pattern, the general use of the diatonic scale with its insistence on tonic and dominant, the mathematical fitting of the syllables into the metric pattern, the part singing and the fact that this part-singing is often done in contrapuntal style,--these are factors which help one to recognize the European origin of the music. But it is an ancient and long-since vanished European music which has been preserved in an alien culture and is thus accessible only through that culture. Mohammed Merbouh is the vocal soloist, accompanying himself on the oud. Qaida 'el Qaoui is also a love song, but an unhappy one. The text is by the poet Bouazza."
Bowles, Paul F. "Meknes." in Folk, Popular, and Art Music of Morocco. The Paul Bowles Moroccan Music Collection. Washington, DC: American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, 1959-1962.
The Paul Bowles Moroccan Music Collection (AFC 1960/001), American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., Courtesy of the Paul Bowles Estate and Irene Hermann / Tangier American Legation Institute for Moroccan Studies.