Mosul is Iraq's third largest city, with approximately 665,000 inhabitants as of 1987. It is situated close to 400 kilometers north of Baghdad on the west bank of Tigris, in the Diar Rabi'a region, close to the ruined Assyrian city of Nineveh. Though the population of Mosul is principally Kurdish, Mosul is home to other minority groups, including Aramaic-speaking Christian Assyrians, and to a lesser extent, Turcomans. The city has been described as 'the pearl of the north.' Once a walled city, remains of the original fortifications still stand along the Bash Tapia castle, on the western bank of the Tigris.
Mosul is the only major city east of Euphrates built primarily of stone and brick. It includes an extensive use of marble, especially in columns, door and window frames. Specialized masonry techniques, like the carving on marble with bitumen filling, were introduced to the city from Damascus during the reign of Nur al-Din. Its buildings and monuments were partially built with re-used elements from Roman temples and early Christian churches.
In approximately 850 BCE, King Assubanipal II of Assyria chose the city of Nimrud to establish his capital, where present day Mosul is located. Around 700 BCE, King Sennacherib made Nineveh the new capital of Assyria. Mosul later succeeded Nineveh as the Tigris bridgehead of the road that linked Syria and Anatolia with Persia. By the eighth century, Mosul had become the principal city of northern Mesopotamia.
The city was an important trade center in the Abbasid era, because of its strategic position on the caravan route between India, Persia and the Mediterranean. In 1127, Mosul became the capital of the Zangid dynasty until 1224, when it was sacked by the newly prominent local Badr al-Din Lu'lu'. During Badr al-Din Lu'lu''s reign, the city reached its apogee, and was widely known for its textile and metalwork.
The city is also recognized for its abundance of shrines, dedicated to religious figures like Jonah, St. Georges, and several Shi'ite Imams. A distinguishing feature of these shrines is the dome, which appears a simple, conical or pyramidal form from the outside, but reveal exquisite muqarnas ornamentation from the inside. These forms spread beyond shrines, and were adopted by many local churches. Several decorative patterns and techniques that formed in Mosul also spread into the greater Muslim world, including brick decoration, and marble mosaic work.
In the thirteenth century, Mosul was nearly destroyed by Mongol invasion. It was not until 1534, when the Ottomans took control over Mosul, that the city was rebuilt, and transformed into the region's commercial and administrative center. Mosul declined after the opening of the Suez Canal, but was revived with the discovery and development of petroleum reserves in the area in the 1920s.
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Ettinghausen, Richard and Oleg Grabar. The Art and Architecture of Islam. New Haven : Yale University Press, 1994.
Architecture of the Islamic World, Edited by George Michell. London : Thames and Hudson, 1978.
Bosworth, Clifford Edmond. The New Islamic Dynasties. New York : Columbia University Press, 1996.
Al-Tabbaa, Yasser Ahmad. The Architectural Patronage of Nur al-Din, (1146-1174). New York : New York University, University Microfilms International, 1982.
The Mujahidi Mosque was located along the banks of the river Tigris in the southern part of Mosul, just outside Bab al-Tibn. The mosque was constructed by Mujahid al-Din Qaymaz al-Rumi, who was an atabek of Mosul and known for constructing many public works in his day. At its time of construction in 1176/572 AH, the Mujahidi Mosque was Mosul's third congregational mosque and the first built outside the city walls in the lower suburbs (rabad, pl. arbad) of the medieval town, hence its other ancient name, Jami' al-Rabad.
The history of the Mujahidi mosque has been compiled by Sa'id Daywahji, a historian of Mosul and former director of the Mosul Museum. The mosque was constructed of brick and plaster, and known for its plaster ornamentation inside the mosque which included vegetation and Kufic script, which several medieval and modern travelers described. The exterior of the dome was also clad in tile that had a blueish-green tint.1After an initial period of flourishing, the mosque's importance dwindled. After the Mongol invasion of Iraq and the Jazira decimated the population of Mosul, the size of the city shrank and most of the population retreated within the city walls, diminishing the need for the suburban mosque. Annual flooding of the Tigris and erosion of the banks onto which the mosque was built caused structural damage.
It was not until the eighteenth century/eleventh century AH that the mosque was restored under 'Ali Pasha, the governor of Mosul in 1726/1139 AH. At this time the mosque became known as a shrine (maqam) to Khidr, a figure from Near Eastern legends associated with vegetation and the rebirth of the world in spring, aspects of whose character became conflated with aspects of the Biblical prophet Ilyas (Elijah).2
Thanks to its antiquity and associations with Khidr, the Mujahidi Mosque continued to be used from the seventeenth century up until contemporary times, although it can be assumed that its appearance had changed drastically, much of the original decoration having disappeared in modern renovations, and the form of the building also changing over time through destruction and renovation.
It was reported on February 27, 2015, that the Mujahidi Mosque was deliberately destroyed by the Islamic State, following the destruction of several other religious sites, particularly those with significance for ethnic and religious minorities.3
--Matthew Saba, Visual Resources Librarian for Islamic Architecture, AKDC @ MIT. May 26, 2017