On the eastern side of the Ajlun mountains, Amman is a hilly city through which a small river, Wadi ‘Amman, once ran. Settlements have existed on the plateau since at least 3000 BCE. The Islamic history of the city begins when the city was taken by the forces of the general Yazīd ibn Abī Sufyān in 635, but it declined in importance, and by 1300 had nearly disappeared.
The Ottoman resettled the site with Circassian refugees from Russia in 1878, but I wasn’t until becoming the capital of Jordan after World War II that the city really began to grow.
Overlooking the Jordan valley and 17km from Amman, the site lies atop a prominent hill not far from the Royal Palace. The prayer hall, which accommodates 500 person, is covered with a large central dome and the four lateral areas are covered with smaller ones. To the right of the main entry is placed the black marble sarcophagus of the late Queen. The mosque's principal structure is a reinforced concrete frame. The ferroconcrete mesh domes are surfaced with trowelled concrete skins, a technology adapted from ship building.