Amasya is a small city in the Anatolian portion of the modern nation of Turkey and it serves as the capital of a Turkish province (il) of the same name. It is situated in north-central Anatolia within a deep gorge carved by the Yeşilırmak (Green River, known in Greek as Iris) as it flows northeast through the Pontic Mountains toward its mouth on the Black Sea. The gorge is hemmed in on the north by Harşena Dağı (Mount Harshena) and on the south by Farhad Dağı (Mount Farhad).
Its naturally fortified location along trade routes leading from central Anatolia to the Black Sea made Amasya an excellent candidate for habitation, and its history as a town thus must stretch back into remote antiquity.1 Its name is first recorded in Greek texts as Amáseia, from which its modern name derives. From the end of the fourth century to the middle of the first century BCE, the city was the seat of the Hellenistic Kings of Pontus, whose tombs are cut into the southern face of Harşena Dağı and still look over the city today. During the period of Roman and Byzantine rule the town was an important regional center and had a thriving Christian population, which remained intact for some time after the Muslim conquest.
Amasya's history under Muslim rule began in the 1080s/470s AH when it was conquered by the Turkmen amir Danishmand Ghazi (d. 1104/497 AH). The city remained under Danishmandid rule until the early twelfth century when it fell to the Seljuqs of Rum. After the defeat of the Rum Seljuqs by invading Mongol armies in 1243/641 AH, Amasya remained under Seljuq control for several decades, but by the end of the thirteenth/seventh century AH it had passed into the hands of Ilkhanid governors. In 1352/783, Amasya was annexed into the northeastern Anatolian principality of Eretna b. Ja'far (r. 1336-1352/736-753 AH), a commander of Uyghur origin who had served under the Ilkhanid governors of Anatolia. It remained under Eretnid rule until 1389/791 AH, when it was captured by the Ottoman sultan Bayezid I and remained under Ottoman rule until the early twentieth century and the foundation of the modern Turkish nation-state.
The shift in power from Christian to Muslim rule resulted in some significant changes to the shape of the city. The citadel atop Mount Harşena to the north was simply rebuilt, and the new Muslim rulers converted the largest Byzantine church on the south bank of the Yeşilırmak to a mosque, known as Fethiyye Camii (Jami' al-Fathiyya or "Mosque of Victorious Conquest"). The Seljuqs added a number of monuments, however, including the Burmalı Minare Camii as well as madrasas, bath houses, and a palace. A revolt in 1240 led by a dervish named Baba Rasul resulted in further conversions of churches to mosques and madrasas (probably including the Gök Madrasa), effectively decentralizing the city from a classical model centered on cathedral and market into neighborhoods clustered around religious institutions.2During the Ilkhanid period, the city received one of its most important monuments: a Bimarhane (Hospital), which still stands today.
The Ottoman sultans favored Amasya for its natural beauty and climate, and the period saw further changes to the urban fabric through the construction of several large monuments in the historic town center. Among the notable Ottoman institutions are the Büyük Ağa Madrasa, famous for its octagonal plan, a bedestan (covered market), and several mosques. The most dramatic was the Complex of Bayezid II, which included a grand mosque, madrasa, library and public soup kitchen. It transformed the town center into a green space replete with public services.
Gabriel, Monuments Turcs, II: 6.
Wolper, Cities and Saints, 57-58.
Gabriel, Albert. Monuments Turcs d’Anatolie. 2 vols. Paris: E. de Boccard, 1931-1934.
Goodwin, Godfrey. A History of Ottoman Architecture. London: Thames and Hudson, 1971.
Sinclair, T., David Braund, R. Talbert, Johan Åhlfeldt, Jeffrey Becker, W. Röllig, Tom Elliott, H. Kopp, DARMC, Sean Gillies, B. Siewert-Mayer, Diane Braund, Francis Deblauwe and Eric Kansa. "Amaseia: a Pleiades place resource." Pleiades: A Gazetteer of Past Places,2016. https://pleiades.stoa.org/places/857018
The Gökmedrese (Gök Medrese) or Gökmedrese Camii is located on the western end of what
was the ancient city of Amasya. It served as a mosque and madrasa, and includes a kümbet (vaulted
tomb). A building known today as the Torumtay Türbesi (Tomb of Torumtay) was constructed in 1278/677 AH on the grounds, and together these form a complex. The Gökmedrese is undated but has been attributed to the governor of Amasya and military commander (beylerbey) Sayf al-Din Turumtay, who is named as the patron of the tomb on site. The name gök, which
means "blue" in Turkish, may come from the use of blue-glazed tiles
as exterior surface decoration on the buildings. The term can also mean "celestial," as blue refers to the color of the heavens.
Layout of complex:
The complex comprises three main structures situated within a
small park planted with evergreen trees and rose bushes. A large rectangular
building at the center of the complex houses the madrasa and mosque, and a cuboid building with a conical
roof adjoined to this rectangular building on its eastern side houses the kümbet.
The third building is the dervish lodge or so-called Tomb of Turumtay, which is
a smaller rectangular structure constructed just north of the mosque-madrasa to
face its main entrance (for a detailed description of this building, see
its site record).
The placement of the mosque-madrasa and dervish lodge facing one
another in close proximity is possibly attributed to the layout of the
Byzantine complex, which according to medieval sources included a cathedral and
patriarchate whose foundations were used to build the Seljuk monuments.1
The Mosque-Madrasa Building:
The rectangular mosque-madrasa building is oriented north-south, with its
main entrance portal on the north side. This portal takes the form of a
recessed iwan entered through a pointed arch at the top of a flight of stairs.
Two windows, each with muqarnas hoods, flank the pointed archway and pierce the north facade. Further
adorning the building’s main façade are bands of geometric ornament framing the
two windows and outlining the mouth of the archway.
This main entrance gives onto the long prayer hall, which is divided into
three aisles that are five bays long. Three of the bays on the central aisle are domed, including the bay before the mihrab. Four of the five bays comprising the two side aisles (east and west) have domes. The side aisles terminate on their north ends in a sixth bay, forming the chambers that flank the entrance iwan and from which the two ornate windows of the north facade open.
The kümbet is a tall cube adjoining the mosque-madrasa building on its east side. Surmounting this cube is a fluted conical roof that rests on an octagonal drum built of baked brick. The exterior of the drum preserves remnants of blue glazed tiles in the form of a geometric band and geometric fillings in the blind arches on each face of the drum. These striking decorations give the madrasa its name.
The structure is inaccessible from the outside, having only windows on its north, south and east walls. It is accessible only through the prayer hall of the mosque-madrasa, where an archway cut into the east wall of the east side aisle's northernmost bay communicates between the two structures.
and Saints, 62.
Hillenbrand, Robert. Islamic Architecture: Forn, Function and Meaning. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1994.
Wolper, Ethel Sara. Cities and Saints: Sufism and the Transformation of Urban Space in Medieval Anatolia. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2003.