Michael A. Toler has been the Archnet Content Manager since September 2012. Since July 2018 he has been Interim Program Head of the Aga Khan Documentation Center at MIT (AKDC@MIT). Prior to that he served as the program Director for the Al Musharaka Initiative of the National Institute for Technology and Liberal Education. Michael was responsible for development of content for the Arab Culture and Civilization Online Resource, and for coordinating inter-institutional, collaborative endeavors of faculty, librarians, and technologists using technology to enhance teaching and research on topics relating to Islam, the Middle East, and North Africa.
Michael received a PhD in Comparative Literature with a Certificate in Translation Studies from Binghamton University (SUNY), after teaching in Morocco at L'Ecole Supérieure Roi Fahd de Traduction and Al Akhawayn University in Morocco. He also holds an MA and BA in English from New York University and Virginia Commonwealth University, respectively. He has published and lectured extensively on digital pedagogy and scholarship, as well as the literature, history, cinema, music, and cyberspace of the Maghreb, and the Middle East more widely. Michael is Board Member and Secretary of the Tangier American Legation Institute for Moroccan Studies.
The Berbers often sing in parallel fourths (also in thirds and fifths); the first piece is a good example of this tendency.
The accompaniment includes, as well as the benadir, a large copper tray placed upside down on the matting; this was hit with two tea glasses, one held in each hand. Toward the end of this ·number, a young man of seventeen or so, carried away by the excitement of ·the dance, (two girls were dancing opposite one another) suddenly threw himself into . the circle and began to dance with them. The crowd appreciated this; their approval can be heard.
The performers insisted that there were three pieces here, and· indeed there are two definite breaks. Still, the listener is· inclined to consider it one piece in three parts. The· enormous tent in· which the recordings were made was jammed to bursting with spectators.
Source: Bowles, Paul F. "Ain ed Diab." in Folk, Popular, and Art Music of Morocco. The Paul Bowles Moroccan Music Collection. Washington, DC: American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, 1959-1962.
The Paul Bowles Moroccan Music Collection (AFC 1960/001), American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., Courtesy of the Paul Bowles Estate and Irene Hermann / Tangier American Legation Institute for Moroccan Studies