First established under the name of Yathrib by Jewish tribes that settled there in the 6th century BCE, it was the city to which the Prophet Muhammad emigrated in the 7th century/1st century AH. It became the capital of the expanding Muslim empire, and was renamed Madina al-Munawwara.
Grabar, Oleg. "A Preliminary Note on Two Eighteenth Century
Representations of Mecca and Medina." In Islamic Visual Culture, 1100-1800, volume II, Constructing the Study of Islamic Art. Hampshire: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2006. First published in Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam, vol. 25 (2001), pp. 268-74.
Islamic Visual Culture, 1100-1800 Part Two: Art of the Book Chapter XIII: A Preliminary Note on Two Eighteenth Century Representations of Mekka and Madina