The Afghan Muslim population in the United States grew rapidly in the 1980s as Afghani citizens fled Afghanistan after the Soviet invasion. In Fairfax County, Virginia, Afghan Muslims traveled to Washington-DC area mosques to pray, or rented spaces in apartments, churches, motels, and schools to hold prayers and celebrations. In 1992 the Afghan Academy was established as a non-profit institute to support Afghan immigrants in Virginia, and in 1995 the organization purchased a plot of land in Annandale, at the time the side of an abandoned, boarded-up house, with the goal of building a mosque for the community.
Construction of the mosque began in September 1997 and was completed in November 1999. It is a one-story building nearly square in plan, with a front entrance portico supported by twisted columns. The portico is topped with a light green dome and has a minaret on either side, and a band of tiled Quranic inscriptions running along the top.
Inside, the prayer hall is located on the ground floor and has separate areas for men and women, divided with a large movable carved wood screen. There is a central dome over the prayer hall with a large crystal chandelier, along with several smaller domes and chandeliers. The mihrab is outlined in patterned tiles and inscriptions. A meeting hall, restrooms, classrooms, a library, and office space are located in the lower level of the Center.