El-Kholei, Ahmed O. "Development of Planning Theory and Profession: Implications for Planning Education and Practice in Arab States." Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research. 12, 1 (2018): 182-208.
Presently, cities of the Arab world are experiencing many urban ills. Some are physical, such as environmental degradation, housing problems, unemployment, urban infrastructure-related issues, congested roads; while others are more subjective such as loss of identity. Transformation in the capitalist system and social structures, the inadequate understanding of planning practice and theory, in addition to design education, are to blame for these issues. Currently, in many Arab countries, planning education is still limited to the realm of architectural education, where it is restricted to city form, land use, and design requirements, while little attention is paid to the social, political, institutional, and economic realities of cities that serve as driving forces behind these changes. This paper tries to trace the development of the capitalist system and its corresponding societal transformations and their implications for cities in the Arab region. Subsequently, it reviews the development of planning theory and practice in the developed world and its implication for Arab cities. It attempts to shed light on the reasons behind these transformations and to explore the driving forces of the current state of the Arabian city including, capitalism, class, culture, and communication. Subsequently, it investigates challenges and explores opportunities, and elaborates on possible corrective scenarios to recommend three actions regarding the fields of planning theory research, practice, and education.