This paper attempts to discuss the reciprocal connection between culture and architecture as a social product. In doing so, the paper intends to critically engage with the theme of "culture," its impact on residential developments, and its character in the process of recuperation of post-war society in Sarajevo. The development of residential architecture is followed through the four historical periods that had the greatest impact on its formation. Setting the scene to better understand the current built design challenges, post-war, post-socialist culture and architecture are analysed through the lens of T.S. Elliot's (1948) theory on culture. Specifically, the paper refers to the criteria Elliot defined as essential for a culture to survive; Organic Structure, Regional Context and Balance & Unity in Religion. Finally, the paper identifies the main obstacles in the process of cultural transformation of Sarajevo, indicating an urgent need for addressing the issues of cultural and architectural vitality.