Atanur, Gül. "Space and Meaning Change in Urbanization and Modernization Process: An Urban Park in the First Capital of the Ottoman Empire." Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, vol. 9, issue 1 (2015): 247-260.
The foundations of Westernization Movement in Turkey were laid in late Ottoman Empire. Following the fall of the Ottoman Empire and the proclamation of the republic, urban space became highly important and modernist architects from the west planned a large number of Turkish cities. The concept of urban park was introduced and parks became significant components of modern life in this period. Bursa, too, was influenced by this movement; it was planned by western planners and an urban park was built. However, the meaning of urban parks within the ideal of modern life in Turkey and in Bursa has changed over time. This study is based on urban development periods in Turkey and it presents the change Bursa Kültürpark in Bursa, the early modern city of Turkey, underwent during the process from modernization to globalization.