Abdullahi, Yahya and Mohamed Rashid Embi. "Evolution of Abstract Vegetal Ornaments in Islamic Architecture." Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, vol. 9, issue 1 (2015): 31-49.
This research investigated the history of Islamic abstract vegetal ornaments and sketched their evolution to understand their creation process and innovations. We studied these ornaments regionally to identify regional variations and classified them based on tastes of patrons. Meanwhile, we analysed the formal aspects of these ornaments, including their dimension, proportion, dominant colour, material, and techniques. In addition, the study conducted detailed observations of their characteristics, such as margins, apex, thickness of stem scrolls and vents, to define their constructive elements, aesthetical properties, and design principles that reveal date, region, and styles. This research not only provides a comprehensive guide to the evolution of Islamic abstract vegetal ornaments for architectural conservation projects but also serves as a reference for the comparative and critical analysis of contemporary Islamic-inspired ornaments.
Keywords: Ornaments; Islamic ornaments; abstraction; Middle East art & architecture