The Museum’s Permanent Collection includes one of the oldest surviving copies of volume five of the Qanun [fi’l-tibb] (Canon [of Medicine]), which was compiled by the Iranian scholar Ibn Sina or Avicenna (died 1037). Ibn Sina wrote a five-volume encyclopedia that brought together medical knowledge from the Muslim, Greco-Roman, and Chinese worlds, including insights from Aristotle (died 322 BCE) and Galen (died circa 216 CE). Avicenna’s Qanun was translated into Latin in Toledo, Spain, in the thirteenth century. It then became the most influential medical encyclopedia in Europe, where it was taught in universities well into the eighteenth century. The Aga Khan Museum’s collection also contains volume four of this rare copy of the encyclopedia.