Schriwer, Charlie. “English abstract of 'of Institutions of Learning in Jerusalem'". Translated by Charlie Schriwer. In Cities as Built and Lived Environments: Scholarship from Muslim Contexts, 1875 to 20. 11, by Aptin Khanbaghi. 82. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2014.
عسلي، کامل جميل. معاهد العلم في بيت المقدس. عمان: جمعية عمال المطابع التعاونية، ١٩٨١، ٤۳٨ص.
‘Asli, Kamal Jameel. Ma‘ahid al-‘Ilm fi Bayt al-Maqdis. ‘Amman: Jam‘iyyat ‘Ummal al-Matabe‘ al-Ta‘awniyyah, 1981, 438pp.
Institutions of Learning in Jerusalem
معاهد العلم في بيت المقدس
Ma‘ahid al-‘Ilm fi Bayt al-Maqdis is a comprehensive work in six explanatory chapters on the Islamic institutions of learning in Jerusalem. The book begins with an introduction to the role of the madrasa in Islam and its public role. It then discusses the ‘Aqsa Mosque, and continues by providing an introduction to madrasas in Jerusalem and their public role. The remainder of the work is organised into three longer chapters containing descriptions of the various institutions of learning that exist in Jerusalem; these are listed according to various patrons living in different time periods, and include the commissions of such famous individuals as the Ayyubid ruler al-Malik al-Afdal, who ordered the construction of al-Madrasa al-Afdaliyyah in AH 590 and the Mamluk Sultan of Egypt, al-Malik al-Ashraf Qaitbey, who commissioned the building of al-Madrasah al-Ashrafiyyah between the years AH 885 and 887. These continue in chronological order until the commissions by the last Ottoman sultans, including Ahmed III and the construction of al-Madrasah Ahmadiyyah in AH 1080. Included are also a number of legal madrasas, such as al-Madrasah al-Hanbaliyyah.
The book also provides the reader with an introduction to Sufi institutions and their history, and proceeds with a list of Sufi tariqas (orders), ribats (refuges for mystics), khanqas (places of retreat) and zawiyas (Sufi lodges) in Jerusalem, including the constructions by famous orders such as the Qadiriyyah, Qalandariyyah and Naqshbandiyyah. These are also listed in chronological order by building type. The final chapter discusses the role of libraries in Jerusalem, and includes a list of those considered to be most important.
Al-‘Asli’s work is insightful and comprehensive, and provides a useful overview of the madrasas, khanqas and other Islamic institutions of learning that have existed in Jerusalem over the last millennium. He includes a large selection of colour and black and white photographs illustrating the most important institutions, as well as including relevant historical information regarding the construction of the buildings, such as the name of the architect and patron, where known. Because it is an overview describing a large number of buildings, the author is not always able to include a detailed historical or architectural analysis, but this is balanced by helpful additional material such as a detailed index at the end of the book, a map of Jerusalem showing the location of the most important institutions of learning, and a number of detailed architectural plans.