M. Salama is full professor of architecture and Chair of the Department of
Architecture, University of Strathclyde Glasgow, United Kingdom. He was the
founding Chair of the Department of Architecture and Urban Planning at Qatar
University, Doha, Qatar and was a Reader in Architecture at Queen’s University
Belfast. He is a fellow of the Higher Education Academy-FHEA and the
Royal Society of the Arts-FRSA. He holds B.Arch, M.Arch, and Ph.D. from the Al
Azhar University in Egypt and North Carolina State University, USA (1987, 1991,
1996). He has held permanent, tenured, and visiting positions in Egypt, Italy,
and Saudi Arabia. With varied experience in academic research, teaching, design
and research based consultancy, Professor Salama bridges theory and design and
pedagogy and practice in his professional activities. He was the Director of
Consulting at Adams Group Architects in Charlotte, North Carolina (2001-2004).
Salama has written over 140 articles and papers in the international refereed
press; authored and co-edited nine books: New Trends in Architectural
Education: Designing the Design Studio (North Carolina, USA), Human
Factors in Environmental Design (Cairo, Egypt), “Architectural Education
Today: Cross-Cultural Perspectives” (Lausanne, Switzerland), Architecture
as Language of Peace (Napoli-Roma, Italy), Design Studio Pedagogy:
Horizons for the Future (Gateshead, United Kingdom), and Transformative
Pedagogy in Architecture and Urbanism (Solingen, Germany). His latest
books include: Demystifying Doha: On Architecture and Urbanism in an
Emerging City (Ashgate 2013), Architecture Beyond Criticism: Expert
Judgment and Performance Evaluation (Routledge 2014), and Spatial
Design Education: New Directions for Pedagogy in Architecture and Beyond
(Ashgate 2015). Professor Salama is the chief editor of the International Journal of Architectural Research (featured on Archnet), associate editor of
Open House International-OHI, and serves on the editorial boards of numerous
internationally refereed journals and on the scientific and review boards of
several international organizations.
Salama, Ashraf. "When Good Design Intentions Do Not Meet Users Expectations: Exploring Qatar University Campus, Outdoor Spaces," in ArchNet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, vol. 2, issue 2 (2008).
Investigating the description of the Architect of Qatar University Campus reveals that one of the initial intentions in the design of the campus was to introduce a series of open public spaces and partially covered courtyards, displaying gardens and fountains to create small oases throughout the university. These spaces intended to encourage intellectual and social atmosphere and to provide agreeable surroundings for informal gathering and activities. However, preliminary observations of these spaces show that the original purpose for which they were created seems to be un-satisfied. Strikingly, no attempt has been made to systematically evaluate the performance of these spaces with respect to the use of the university community. Thus, this paper engulfs the issue of design intention versus users’ reactions by conducting a post occupancy evaluation study. It introduces an assessment of the performance of Qatar University-QU campus outdoor spaces from users’ perspective after it has been used and occupied for over 20 years. The assessment aims at understanding the mutual interaction process between the built environment exemplified by the physical characteristics of campus outdoor spaces and the needs of the university community exemplified by students, faculty, and staff. Therefore, the paper argues for the value of evaluating current campus outdoor spaces from users’ perspective. It aims at defining problematic areas related to the utilization of current spaces—that are contrasted with the architect’s design philosophy and intentions—in order to develop a framework for possible future improvements. The methodology adopted is multilayered in nature and incorporates a wide variety of assessment techniques, including walk-through evaluation, observation, behavioral mapping, and questionnaires. The investigation reveals a number of problems that may hinder the performance of different types of QU campus users. The paper concludes that by recognizing how well university campus outdoor spaces respond to the needs of faculty, students, and staff, one can recommend ways of improving the outdoor environment necessary to facilitate the work and learning experiences of different users within the campus and the desired student-faculty interaction.