Set at the foot of the Alborz mountains, Tehran, once an agricultural enclave characterized by forests and abundant mountain water, developed at the site of a citadel since medieval times. Tehran was first walled during the Safavid era, in the mid-sixteenth century. With the decline of other regional centers, Tehran replaced Shiraz as the capital of the Zand dynasty in the mid-eighteenth century, before being proclaimed the capital of the succeeding Qajar dynasty in 1795. Tehran flourished under Qajar patronage, and the city gained the addition of various gardens and complexes, perhaps the most notable being the Kakh-i Gulistan, or Gulistan Palace.
By the early twentieth century, these walls were subsumed by the continually expanding city, as the population growth reached half a million. From 1870-2/1287-9 AH, Nasir al-Din undertook the city's modernization, extending the city walls, adding decorative towers and twelve new, tiled gates. Inspired by the urban development of Paris under Napoleon III, which al-Din had witnessed personally on a visit abroad in 1873, the new walls were designed with the work of Sebastien Leprestre de Vauban in mind, and the area north of the original city transformed to the likeness of the Boulevard Haussman. New avenues and squares were constructed, among them; Meydan-e Tupkhane (Cannon Square) , Avenue Lalezar (Tulipbed Street), and Ala Od Dwale Under al-Din's direction the city quadrupled in size, and many of the gardens surrounding the city were used for further construction. The Kakh-i Gulistan was rebuilt, and became the centerpiece of the city, with the addition of turreted towers, supervised by Dust 'Ali Khan Nizam al Dawla. Polychrome tiles replaced the painted ornamentation in much of the complex, as did carved stucco and decorative mirror-work. In addition to the Kakh-i Gulistan, summer palaces were constructed in the Shimiranat villages in the city's northern suburbs.
Tehran yet again underwent expansion and modernization efforts in the mid-twentieth century, as the prosperity that accompanied the exploitation of oil from the 1950s accelerated the growth of the city. In 1979, Tehran became a hub for revolutionary activities, aimed at concluding the reign of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. The city has continued to be a site of development, with over half of Iran's total industry being based in Tehran, and the construction of many research and educational centers.
Esmailpour Ghouchani, Iradj. '"Arabic abstract of 'Statistics of the Capital, Tehran Documents from Tehran’s Social History During the Qajar Era'". Translated by Hala Adra. In Cities as Built and Lived Environments: Scholarship from Muslim Contexts, 1875 to 2011, by Aptin Khanbaghi. 489. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2014.
سعدوندیان، سیروس و اتحادیه، منصوره . آمار دارالخلافه تهران: اسنادی از تاریخ اجتماعی تهران در عصر قاجار. تهران: نشر تاریخ ایران، ١٣۶٨ ، چاپ اول، ٦۵١ ص
Sa‘dvandiyan , Sirus and Ittihadiyah, Mansurah. ’Amar-i Dar al-Khilafah-i Tihran: Asnadi az Tarikh-i Ijtima‘i-i Tihran dar ‘Asr-i Qajar. Tehran: Markaz-i Furush, Nashr-i Tarikh-i Iran, 1990/1991, 1st ed., 651pp.
(إحصائيات العاصمة طهران (وثائق من التاريخ الاجتماعي لطهران في عصر القاجار
(آمار دارالخلافه تهران (اسنادی از تاریخ اجتماعی تهران در عصر قاجار
ﯾﻀﻢ اﻟﻜﺘﺎب ﺛﻼث وﺛﺎﺋﻖ ﺗﺎرﯾﺨﯿﺔ ﺗﻌﻮد ﻟﻠﻌﺼﺮ اﻟﻘﺎﺟﺎري، ذات ﻣﺼﺎدر ﯾﺮد ذﻛﺮھﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻤﮭﯿﺪ اﻟﻜﺘﺎب. ﺗﻌﻮد اﻟﻮﺛﯿﻘﺔ اﻷوﻟﻰ ﻟﻌﺎم ١٨٥٢ و ﺗﺤﻤﻞ ﻋﻨﻮان »ﻋﺪد اﻟﻤﻨﺎزل و اﻷﺑﻨﯿﺔ اﻷﺧﺮى ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﺎﺻﻤﺔ اﻟﺒﺎھﺮة طﮭﺮان« و ﺗﻌﺮض ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ أرﺑﻌﺔ أﺳﻄﺮ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺑـ»ﻋﺪد اﻟﻤﻨﺎزل« و أﻣﺎﻛﻦ أداء اﻟﺸﻌﺎﺋﺮ اﻟﺪﯾﻨﯿﺔ (ﺗﻜﯿﺔ) و اﻷﺿﺮﺣﺔ و اﻟﻤﺴﺎﺟﺪ و اﻟﻤﺘﺎﺟﺮ. ﺗﺼﻨّﻒ اﻟﻤﻨﺎزل ﻓﻲ ھﺬه اﻟﻮﺛﯿﻘﺔ ﻛﻤﻤﺘﻠﻜﺎت ﺗﻌﻮد ﻟﻤﻮاطﻨﯿﻦ ﻋﺎدﯾﯿﻦ و ﺧﺪم، و ﺗﺸﻤﻞ اﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ اﻟﺜﺎﻧﯿﺔ اﻟﺴﻜﺎن ﻣﻦ اﻷرﻣﻦ و اﻟﺘﺮﻛﻤﺎن و اﻟﯿﮭﻮد إﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﺠﺎر. و ﻋﻨﺪ وﺻﻒ أﺣﯿﺎء اﻟﻤﺪﯾﻨﺔ ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﯿﮭﺎ ﺣﻲ اﻷرك و ﻋﻮدﻟﺠﺎن و اﻟﺒﺎزار و ﺳﻨﮕﻠﺞ و ﭼﺎﻟﮫﻣﯿﺪان (ﺗﺸﺎﻟﻤﯿﺪان) و ﺑﻌﺾ اﻟﻤﻨﺎطﻖ اﻷﺧﺮى اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻘﻊ ﺧﺎرج أﺑﻮاب اﻟﻤﺪﯾﻨﺔ، ﺗﺘﺼﺪر ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ اﻟﻤﻨﺎزل ﺑﯿﻮت ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ رﺋﯿﺲ اﻟﻮزراء و اﻷﻣﺮاء و اﻟﻤﺸﺎﯾﺦ و ﺧﺪﻣﮭﻢ. و ﺑﻌﺪ ﺳﺮد ﺑﯿﻮت ﻋﻠﻤﺎء اﻟﺪﯾﻦ و ﻏﯿﺮھﻢ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎء ﺗﻨﺪرج ﻓﻲ اﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺑﯿﻮت اﻟﻤﻮاطﻨﯿﻦ اﻟﻌﺎدﯾﯿﻦ. و ﻣﻊ ﻛﻞ ذﻟﻚ ﻻ ﯾﺘﻄﺮق اﻟﻜﺘﺎب ﻟﻠﻤﻼﻣﺢ اﻟﮭﯿﻜﻠﯿﺔ أو ﻟﻤﻮاﻗﻊ ھﺬه اﻟﻤﻨﺎزل. ﻛﻤﺎ ﺗﺬﻛﺮ اﻟﻮﺛﯿﻘﺔ ﻓﻲ أﻗﺴﺎﻣﮭﺎ اﻟﻨﮭﺎﺋﯿﺔ اﻟﺘﻌﺪاد اﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻷﻣﺎﻛﻦ اﻟﺸﻌﺎﺋﺮ اﻟﺪﯾﻨﯿﺔ و ﻟﻠﻤﺪارس و اﻟﻤﺴﺎﺟﺪ و ﻣﺮاﻛﺰ اﻷﺳﻠﺤﺔ اﻟﺜﻘﯿﻠﺔ و اﻟﻤﺨﺎزن و اﻷﺿﺮﺣﺔ و ﻋﯿﺎدات اﻷطﺒﺎء و ﻣﺨﺎزن اﻷﺳﻠﺤﺔ و اﻷراﺿﻲ ﻏﯿﺮ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻐﻠﺔ ﻋﻤﺮاﻧﯿﺎ.