Mosul is Iraq's third largest city, with approximately 665,000 inhabitants as of 1987. It is situated close to 400 kilometers north of Baghdad on the west bank of Tigris, in the Diar Rabi'a region, close to the ruined Assyrian city of Nineveh. Though the population of Mosul is principally Kurdish, Mosul is home to other minority groups, including Aramaic-speaking Christian Assyrians, and to a lesser extent, Turcomans. The city has been described as 'the pearl of the north.' Once a walled city, remains of the original fortifications still stand along the Bash Tapia castle, on the western bank of the Tigris.
Mosul is the only major city east of Euphrates built primarily of stone and brick. It includes an extensive use of marble, especially in columns, door and window frames. Specialized masonry techniques, like the carving on marble with bitumen filling, were introduced to the city from Damascus during the reign of Nur al-Din. Its buildings and monuments were partially built with re-used elements from Roman temples and early Christian churches.
In approximately 850 BCE, King Assubanipal II of Assyria chose the city of Nimrud to establish his capital, where present day Mosul is located. Around 700 BCE, King Sennacherib made Nineveh the new capital of Assyria. Mosul later succeeded Nineveh as the Tigris bridgehead of the road that linked Syria and Anatolia with Persia. By the eighth century, Mosul had become the principal city of northern Mesopotamia.
The city was an important trade center in the Abbasid era, because of its strategic position on the caravan route between India, Persia and the Mediterranean. In 1127, Mosul became the capital of the Zangid dynasty until 1224, when it was sacked by the newly prominent local Badr al-Din Lu'lu'. During Badr al-Din Lu'lu''s reign, the city reached its apogee, and was widely known for its textile and metalwork.
The city is also recognized for its abundance of shrines, dedicated to religious figures like Jonah, St. Georges, and several Shi'ite Imams. A distinguishing feature of these shrines is the dome, which appears a simple, conical or pyramidal form from the outside, but reveal exquisite muqarnas ornamentation from the inside. These forms spread beyond shrines, and were adopted by many local churches. Several decorative patterns and techniques that formed in Mosul also spread into the greater Muslim world, including brick decoration, and marble mosaic work.
In the thirteenth century, Mosul was nearly destroyed by Mongol invasion. It was not until 1534, when the Ottomans took control over Mosul, that the city was rebuilt, and transformed into the region's commercial and administrative center. Mosul declined after the opening of the Suez Canal, but was revived with the discovery and development of petroleum reserves in the area in the 1920s.
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This still standing Timurid complex, dating to 1393, includes a small shrine dedicated to Nabi Jerjis (the saint/prophet George) built in the Quraysh cemetery in Mosul. Timur, leader of the Timurid Empire, commissioned for this site a mosque and a dome built above the sarcophagus. He also created several endowments or waqfs to sustain the complex.
The tomb chamber is a small square measuring 4.7 on each side, toped with a dome with ribs visible from the outside. Interior surfaces are severely damaged. Its walls are covered with green and yellow glazed brick tiles to the height of two meters and are surmounted by a Quranic inscription band. Adjacent to it, and probably from the same period, is another room measuring 4.17 by 4.46 meters with a central column to support the roof.
South of the tomb chamber lies the mosque built by Timur in 1393 that is recognizable from the outside for its high circular dome. It abides by a square plan and houses the minbar and the main mihrab that were transplanted from the tomb chamber at the time of construction. It is decorated with triangular geometric patterns similar to muqarnas and has two columns on its sides supporting a circular arch.
The second addition to the shrine is a prayer hall for the Sunni Hanafi rite. It is square in plan and is located east of the tomb chamber. Its plan is divided in nine equal bays supported by four central marble columns with decorated capitals. Later in 1735, another prayer hall was added to the north of the tomb chamber for the Sunni Shafi'i rite. It is rectangular in plan with elongated proportions. It is composed of five bays supported on pointed arches.
The minaret was built in 1853 to replace an older one. It is made of stone and has a muqarnas balcony toped by a pointed spire in the Turkish style.
In 1910, after a major earthquake, the Timurid dome collapsed and was re-built with stone following Mosul building techniques. It is decorated with arabesque motifs executed in green glazed brick tiles.
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