Shihab al-Din Muhammad Khurram Shah Jahan (Transliterated)
شاه جهان (Variant)
Shah Jahan (Transliterated)
Shah Jahan, Emperor of Hindustan (Translated)
Shah Jehan (Alternate transliteration)
Shahjahan (Alternate transliteration)
Śāhajahām̐ (Alternate transliteration)
شهاب الدين محمد (Alternate)
Shihab al-Din (Transliterated)
Shihabuddin (Alternate transliteration)
Shahab al-Din (Alternate transliteration)
Shahabuddin (Alternate transliteration)
صاحب قران سليمان مكاني (Alternate)
Sahib-Qiran Sulayman-Makani (Transliterated)
Shah Jahan ("King of the World") was the fifth emperor of the Mughal dynasty of India. He was the son of Mughal emperor Jahangir. His given name was Prince Khurram, and he also bore the honorific title Shihab al-Din Muhammad ("Meteor of the Faith"). After his death he was given the epithet Sahib Qiran Sulayman Makani ("lord of the conjunction who occupies Solomon's place").2
Prince Khurram's entrance into the world of Mughal court politics had a bumpy start. In 1623/1032 AH he was compelled to arrange the murder of his older brother Prince Khusraw and then rebel against his father Jahangir when his wife Nur Jahan attempted to secure the succession for her son in law. The rebellion was put down, but after Jahangir's death Khurram prevailed in ascent to the throne with the help of his father in law Asaf Khan, becoming emperor as Shah Jahan in 1628/1037 AH.
As emperor, Shah Jahan is known for his campaigns in the Deccan and in Central Asia, both of which submitted to Mughal sovereignty for periods of time during his reign. He is also responsible for expanding the income of the imperial treasury by enlarging the definition of imperial reserved lands.2
With his wealth Shah Jahan commissioned numerous building projects. His most famous commission was the costly and monumental Taj Mahal, a mausoleum constructed for his wife, Mumtaz Mahal. Among his other prominent commissions were the Shalimar Gardens at Lahore and the Red Fort Complex at Shahjahanabad, a fortified palace-city built on the outskirts of Delhi that included a market place, great mosque, palaces, and riverfront gardens. He ordered the construction of the famed Takht-i Tawus (Peacock Throne), a gold-encrusted and enameled baldachin throne that was used by the Mughals until it was carried off in the sack of Delhi 1739/1151-2 AH.
Trouble surfaced at court when Shah Jahan's four sons began to fight for succession to the throne. The clashes were especially strong between Awrangzib and Dara Shikuh, the eldest son and crown prince. Awrangzib dethroned his father and imprisoned him in 1658/1068 AH, claiming for himself the succession of Mughal rule. Shah Jahan remained imprisoned at the Red Fort of Agra, dying ten years later in 1666/1076 AH.
Chashma Shahi is one of the gardens constructed by the Mughal court in the valley around Srinagar in Kashmir, a favorite summer retreat for the Mughal emperors. It is situated on the southeast side of Bod Dal (Dal Lake), just north of the Pari Mahal, a garden palace, and to the south of the Nishat Bagh, another garden. It is named after a spring that rises from a hill into which the garden is built. The Mughal governor Ali Mardan Khan oversaw the garden's construction under the patronage of Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in 1632-1633/1042 AH. It is said that this date is derived from a verse found on the site: "Guftamash bahr-i chashma tarikhe/ Guft bar go kausar-i shahi," which translates to, "I inquired of him regarding the date of the spring/ He replied: Say 'Kausar-i Shahi'." The term "Kausar-i Shahi" is synonymous with Chashma-i Shahi. Calculating this term in the 'abjad' system yields the hijra year 1042.
The garden currently occupies a rectangular area measuring approximately 70.83 x 122.81 m. While numerous sources say that the site has been enlarged since its inception, no specific information is available. It is divided into three terraces of varying heights aligned on an axis running northwest to southeast. Its northwestern end marks the garden's lowest point and serves as the main entrance while its southeastern end marks its highest point of elevation and the source of the garden's water, which flows down the length of the garden through an axial water channel, from the spring source under a pavilion on the third (highest) terrace to a five-fountain-pool on the first (lowest) terrace.
The design of the garden, similar to other Kashmiri gardens, is a version of a traditional Persian garden that has been modified to fit the steep site. Because of the site's topography and the limited options for flowing water (its water could only run in one direction, from top to bottom), the double symmetry of the Persian garden was reduced to a central water axis. Instead of a flat ground plane, the garden is composed of terraced planes.
Approaching the site from street level, the visitor is received by a flight of stairs leading to the first (lowest) terrace. At the top of the stairs, an arched gate controls the access to the garden. Passing through the gate, one emerges onto the first terrace. The centerpiece of this level is a large rectangular pool with five fountains that forms the end of the garden's axial water feature. It is fed with a channel that runs down the center of the first terrace via a steep chadar (water ramp) emerging from a large platform at the southern end of the terrace that juts out from the second (middle) terrace. This platform would have once formed the base of a baradari (pavilion), which no longer remains.
Two flights of stairs frame the platform's base and take the visitor from the first to the second terrace. Here, the water channel runs through the center of the terrace through another rectangular pool with one fountain. At the north end of the second terrace, a smaller chadar framed by two sets of steps brings the visitor to the third and highest terrace.
The third terrace is the smallest and is dominated by a large, two-story baradari (pavilion) with a large open porch on its northern (front) end supported by two wooden columns. The spring providing water for the garden's channels emerges from under this porch. Behind the pavilion, mountains covered with greenery rise to form a verdant backdrop for the garden's uppermost level.
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Findly, Ellison Banks. Nur Jahan, Empress of Mughal India. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
Kak, Ram Chandra. Ancient Monuments of Kashmir. New Delhi: Sagar Publications, 1971.
Lawrence, Walter R. The Valley of Kashmir. Srinagar: Kesar Publishers, 1967.
Lehrman, Jonas Benzion. Earthly Paradise: Garden and Courtyard in Islam. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980.
Moore, Charles Willard, William J. Mitchell, and William Turnbull. The Poetics of Gardens. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1988.
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